Στήλη: Psychology

TEENAGE DEPRESSION

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By Nickolaos Pitsios

It seems like I am constantly hearing about young people going into therapy. Rates of depression and anxiety among teens are increasing steadily, and even extreme incidents like violent crimes and suicides are less uncommon.

Some people argue that life is more difficult and the world is more dangerous nowadays. However, it has long been known that such factors do not affect people’s psychological problems. You might find it hard to believe, but research has shown that in times of war and economic depression, rates of anxiety among the general population, including young people, actually decrease dramatically.

Despite all of these real changes and  freedoms that young people now enjoy, the perceived freedom that they have has diminished greatly. This has been proven by tests that measure one’s internal sense of control. People who believe that they have control over their own destiny are more likely to take care of their health, having a good standing in society, and be less likely to suffer from depression. Those who place emphasis on external emphasis on external factors such as having a lot of money or social status are more prone to depression and anxiety. They feel that there is no use even trying, since their efforts are doomed from the start.

But there is an important way in which parents are responsible for this increase in teenage depression. Young people potentially learn to develop independence and a sense of worth from a very young age.

By hovering over them and not allowing them to learn life lessons on their own, they are depriving them a sense of inner worth. It’s time that unstructured play and freedom became a part of childhood instead of endless extracurricural activities and homework. The child’s future ability to attain happiness in their parent’s hands should be treated with caution.

PROCRASTINATION

By Katrivesi Ioanna & Gossimida Irene

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Procrastination is the avoidance of a task that needs to be accomplished by a certain deadline. It is also viewed as a habitual or intentional delay of finishing a task, knowing that it might have negative consequences. Procrastination includes the delay of simple everyday tasks, such as not doing the household chores, but also putting off more important tasks, such as submitting an assignment.

 

So why do we procrastinate? Studies have shown that when procrastinators view a task as something difficult, they retard it. Moreover, procrastination can be linked with low self-esteem. Basically, when a person doubts their ability to do good work at what they need to do, they avoid doing it. The procrastinator has self-esteem issues so they feel as if they are not skilled enough to complete what they are assigned to do and they end up not carrying out the task. Therefore, we can say that procrastination is a defense mechanism. Your mind thinks that it helps you and it tricks you into believing that the task will eventually go away.

 

Nowadays, a lot of people blame modern technology for the rise of procrastination in the recent decades. However, that solely depends on our use of technology. For example, setting an alarm clock helps us wake up in time. When it rings we have the option of using the snooze button and as a result we will procrastinate due to our own choice and not because of technology. Today, there are multiple mechanisms that can prevent us from procrastinating when using technology, such as systems that time us out after a certain amount of time. Consequently it is our responsibility to use technology as a tool and not as a means of delay.

 

What are some ways to stop procrastinating? Although it often seems that a task is impossible to be completed, it is rather possible to overcome the challenge of procrastination and get things done. One of the most important factors that can help you get over the stage of procrastinating is your attitude. If you think that something cannot be done, it is obvious that it will be a whole lot more difficult to get it done. On the contrary, having a positive outlook on the situation will motivate you and make things much easier for you. In the end, it is us that put limits to ourselves. Furthermore, it is often beneficial to break a task down into smaller ones. Lastly, if easily tempted, put aside the interruptions.

 

To sum up, procrastination is something that everyone experiences in their lifetime. It is, however, vital not to let it take control of us and to find ways to surpass it in order to get our task done. Either way, our capabilities depend on our point of view and our attitude. It is therefore a matter of psychology. The only real limitation on our abilities is the level of our desires.

 

Zodiac Signs: their strengths and weaknesses

MBTI

By Melina Katsardi & Maria Papadia

 

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a self-help assessment test which helps people gain insights about how they work and learn. It is a framework for relationship-building, developing positivism and achieving excellence.

 MAIN PURPOSE

The main purpose of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) personality inventory is to make the theory of psychological types described by C. G. Jung understandable and useful in people’s lives. The essence of the theory is that much seemingly random variation in the behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the ways individuals prefer to use their perception and judgment.

Perception involves all the ways of gathering information about things, people, happenings, or ideas. Judgment involves all the ways of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. If people differ systematically in what they perceive and in how they reach conclusions, then it is only reasonable for them to differ correspondingly in their interests, reactions, values, motivations, and skills.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MYERS-BRIGGS TEST

Both Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine were immensely fascinated by Jung’s theory of psychological types and recognized that the theory could have actual real-world applications. During World War II, Myers and Briggs began researching and developing an indicator that could helpunderstand individual differences. By helping people understand themselves, Myers and Briggs were confident that they could help people select occupations that suited their personality types best and lead healthier, happier lives.

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PERSONALITY TYPES

At the core of the theory, there are sixteen personality types, each using four main cognitive functions at varying degrees. To elaborate further, every personality type utilizes a dominant, an auxiliary, a tertiary and an inferior cognitive function, with the dominant one being their most and their inferior one being their least preferred.

The types and the functions they use respectively

 

ESFJ

Dominant: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

Auxiliary: Introverted Sensing (Si)

Tertiary: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Inferior: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

 

ENFJ

Dominant: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

Auxiliary:Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Tertiary: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

Inferior: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

 

ESFP

Dominant: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

Auxiliary: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Tertiary: Extroverted Thinking (Te)

Inferior: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

 

ENFP

Dominant: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Auxiliary:Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Tertiary:Extroverted Thinking (Te)

Inferior:Introverted Sensing (Si)

 

ESTJ

Dominant:Extroverted Thinking (Te)

Auxiliary: Introverted Sensing (Si)

Tertiary: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Inferior: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

 

ENTJ

Dominant: Extroverted Thinking (Te)

Auxiliary: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Tertiary: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

Inferior: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

 

ESTP

Dominant: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

Auxiliary: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Tertiary: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

Inferior: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

 

ENTP

Dominant: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Auxiliary: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Tertiary: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

Inferior: Introverted Sensing (Si)

 

ISFJ

Dominant: Introverted Sensing (Si)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

Tertiary: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Inferior: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

 

INFJ

Dominant: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

Tertiary: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Inferior: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

 

ISFP

Dominant: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

Tertiary: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Inferior: Extroverted Thinking (Te)

 

INFP

Dominant: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Tertiary: Introverted Sensing (Si)

Inferior: Extroverted Thinking (Te)

 

ISTJ

Dominant: Introverted Sensing (Si)

Auxiliary:Extroverted Thinking (Te)

Tertiary: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Inferior: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

 

INTJ

Dominant: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Thinking (Te)

Tertiary: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Inferior: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

 

ISTP

Dominant: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

Tertiary: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Inferior:Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

 

INTP

Dominant: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Auxiliary: Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Tertiary: Introverted Sensing (Si)

Inferior:Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

 

Extroverted Intuition (Ne)

Dominant Extroverted Intuition:

 

As a dominant function, Ne manifests as a seemingly never-ending plethora of theories, possibilities and inventive ideas that the user is constantly picking up on.

 

The dominant-Ne monologue: “I am swimming in an endless sea of possibilities about what to do/experience/think about next and I want to try them all.”

 

Auxiliary Extroverted Intuition:

 

Auxiliary Ne manifests as a plethora of possibilities that arise to support or expand upon a thought or decision that the user has come to.

 

The auxiliary-Ne monologue: “I see a million different ways to look at the concept I’ve been analyzing and I want to consider them all.”

 

Tertiary Extroverted Intuition:

 

Tertiary Ne manifests as a series of creative solutions that may go into solving a given problem or moving them towards a goal.

 

The tertiary-Ne monologue: “I will consider which possibilities will best help me accomplish the goal I have set.”

 

Inferior Extroverted Intuition:

 

Inferior Ne originally manifests as a reluctance to try new ways of doing things, occasionally giving way to anxiety over the unknown.

 

As Ne matures, its user will become more comfortable dwelling in uncertainties and entertaining new possibilities.

 

The inferior-Ne monologue (prior to maturation): “It is best to stick to the most reliable methods of getting things done. There is no sense getting lost in a sea of unpredictable possibilities.”

 

Dominant Introverted Intuition:

 

As a dominant function, Ni manifests as a keen perception for the meaningful connections that exist between the thoughts, concepts, events and occurrences in the Ni-user’s environment.

 

The dominant-Ni monologue:“Everything is ‘interconnected’ and I must determine the meaning and implication behind those connections.”

 

Auxiliary Introverted Intuition

 

As an auxiliary function, Ni manifests as an understanding of how one ought to go about accomplishing his or her goals, based on a keen intuitive perception of how various courses of action are likely to unfold.

 

The auxiliary-Ni monologue: “How can I use my intuitive knowledge about how things are connected in order to achieve what I want?”

 

Tertiary Introverted Intuition

 

As a tertiary function, Ni manifests as the desire to optimize or perfect upon one’s pre-existing talents or skills.

 

The tertiary-Ni monologue: “How can I improve upon – or even perfect – the approach that I regularly take toward my main passion or interest?”

 

Inferior Introverted Intuition

 

As an inferior function, Ni originally manifests as a scorn or distaste for over-analyzing what is obvious or over-planning for the future.

 

As inferior introverted intuition matures, the user may find themselves developing a keen ‘hunch’ for the way things are bound to unfold in the future and will enjoy entertaining these ideas.

 

The inferior-Ni monologue (prior to maturation):“Everyone needs to stop over-analyzing everything, the answers are literally right in front of us.”

 

Extroverted Sensing (Se)

 

As a dominant function, Se manifests as the desire to engage fully with the sensory aspects of one’s environment, without any restraint or pause for analysis.

 

The dominant-Se monologue: “I want to sample all of the experiences that are immediately available to me and see where those experiences lead me!”

 

Auxiliary Extroverted Sensing

 

As an auxiliary function, Se manifests as the desire to experience and experiment with the sensory aspects that the user has determined to be the most enjoyable or useful.

 

The auxiliary-Se monologue: “I want to go live out the experiences that I have determined to be the best or most enjoyable and see what happens as a result.”

 

Tertiary Extroverted Sensing:

 

As a tertiary function, extroverted sensing manifests as the user’s ability to pick up cues from their external environment and react to them with a sense of natural confidence.

 

The tertiary-Se monologue: “I prefer to plan ahead, but when necessary, I can think surprisingly well on my feet, as I feel in tune with what is going on around me.”

 

Inferior Extroverted Sensing:

 

As an inferior function, Se originally manifests as a distrust of the physical world that surrounds its user, or the pervasive belief that one’s intellect can and must be trusted above the sensory information that is available.

 

As Se matures, the user may find themselves feeling steadily more in tune with the sensory world that surrounds them, and more able to trust it as a pervasive force.

 

The inferior-Se monologue (prior to maturation): “I must analyze all possible outcomes of a sensory experience, as the physical world is subject to change unexpectedly, at any time.”

 

Introverted Sensing (Si)

Dominant Introverted Sensing:

 

As a dominant function, Si manifests as a powerful memory for what has worked well in the past, and the desire to structure one’s life around the traditions and positive outcomes of past experiences.

 

The dominant-Si monologue:“I prefer to plan the majority of my life around the traditional or tried-and-true methods of doing things, as they have proven to be the most reliable.”

 

Auxiliary Introverted Sensing:

 

As an auxiliary function, Si manifests as the preference to rely on the tried-and-true method when working to accomplish a particular goal.

 

The auxiliary-Si monologue:“In order to achieve what I want, I will employ the most reliable and socially acceptable method of accomplishing it.”

 

Tertiary Introverted Sensing

 

As a tertiary function, introverted sensing manifests as a proneness to nostalgia, as well as a method of contrasting the new and exciting with the old and the known.

 

The tertiary-Si monologue:“I will examine how my new experience or theory sizes up against my past experiences or way of understanding the world.”

 

Inferior Introverted Sensing

 

As an inferior function, introverted sensing originally manifests as a resistance to tradition or conformity of any sort.

 

As Si matures, the user will find themselves steadily more able to determine when traditional methods are useful in accomplishing their goals and when they are notand will begin to feel comfortable integrating tried-and-true methods into their experiences as they see fit.

 

The inferior-Si monologue (prior to maturation): “Out with the old, in with the new! F*ck the system! The man can’t keep me down!”

 

Extroverted Thinking (Te)

 

As a dominant function, Te manifests as the ability to clearly envision the most effective outcome to any given situation or problem and the ability to set the corresponding plans into action.

 

The dominant-Te monologue: “I will achieve my goal by any means necessary.”

 

Auxiliary Extroverted Thinking:

 

As an auxiliary function, Te manifests as the ability to take concrete, efficient action on the user’s analysis of what the best thing to do would be.

 

The auxiliary-Te monologue: “Now that I have determined the best or most reliable course of action, I will set it into motion using the most straightforward method available to me.”

 

Tertiary Extroverted Thinking:

 

As a tertiary function, Te manifests as the ability to source whichever resources are necessary to make the user’s desire a reality.

 

The tertiary-Te monologue: “I will employ the most straightforward method that exists in order to make my goal, dream or impulse come true.”

 

Inferior Extroverted Thinking:

 

As an inferior function, Te originally manifests as the inability to set one’s external desires or plans into motion.

 

As Te matures, the user finds themselves steadily more able to source the resources they require to make their dreams a reality. They also find themselves developing the ability to express their thoughts to others in a straightforward, logical manner.

 

The inferior-Te monologue (prior to maturation): “I have many goals I want to accomplish but often have trouble tangibly setting them into motion. I fear being perceived as incompetent by others.”

 

Introverted Thinking (Ti)

 

As a dominant function, Ti manifests as the constant identification of logical patterns that exist in ones external environment as well as a keen perception for any deviations from those patterns.

 

The dominant-Ti monologue: “I must figure out exactly how everything logistically works in relation to everything else.”

 

Auxiliary Introverted Thinking:

 

As an auxiliary function, Ti manifests as the identification of how the logical systems in the user’s external environment could be manipulated to work to their advantage.

 

The auxiliary-Ti monologue: “How can I manipulate the way that this object or situation works so that it instead works the way I’d like it to?”

 

Tertiary Introverted Thinking:

 

 

As an auxiliary function, Ti manifests as the organization of the user’s pre-existing knowledge in a logical, systematic format.

 

The tertiary-Ti monologue: Where does this new hunch or piece of information I’ve acquired fit in relation to what I already know to be true?

 

Inferior Introverted Thinking:

 

As an inferior function, introverted thinking originally manifests as an excessively critical view of others, as it searches for objective (and often harsh) truths about other people.

 

As Ti matures, the user will find themselves using the objective truths they pick up on about others to nurture and guide others in a positive fashion, rather than manipulating them for their own gain.

 

The inferior-Ti monologue (prior to maturation): “Can I use these objective observations about others to my advantage?”

 

Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

 

As a dominant function, Fe seeks to identify what is moral by identifying what those around them value, and then to enforce those values as a measure of keeping the peace in their external environment.

 

The dominant-Fe monologue: “I will make those around me feel comfortable and happy in a cohesive manner, by identifying what we are all mutually striving for.”

 

Auxiliary Extroverted Feeling:

 

As an auxiliary function, Fe manifests as the urge to apply one’s understanding of a given situation in a way that will satisfy the needs and desires of others.

 

The auxiliary-Fe monologue: “I will analyze the information that is available to me and then see how I can use it to achieve interpersonal peace.”

 

Tertiary Extroverted Feeling:

 

As a tertiary function, Fe manifests as the ability to pick up on the motivations and emotions of those around the user. The immature Fe user may then take advantage of those feelings by manipulating them in a way that supports his or her own ends. The mature tertiary Fe user will search for a means of incorporating the needs of others into their personal plans and actions.

 

The tertiary-Fe monologue (prior to maturation): “I will assess the feelings of those around me to determine whether or not I can get what I want from them.”

 

Inferior Extroverted Feeling:

 

As an inferior function, Fe originally manifests as the user being reluctant to dabble with or express emotional concerns, as the user cannot logically make sense of many of his or her own emotions and therefore doesn’t feel confident in moderating them.

 

As Fe matures, its user will feel increasingly comfortable making and keeping emotional commitments to others, as they grow more confident in what is expected of them.

 

The inferior-Fe monologue (prior to maturation): “Feelings make me freeze with anxiety because I don’t know how to moderate them. I am terrified of accidentally offending someone.”

 

Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Dominant Introverted Feeling:

 

As a dominant function, Fi manifests as a moral compass that points its user toward the direction they ought to explore next, based on how they feel about the information at hand.

 

The dominant-Fi monologue:“I must decide how I feel and where I stand on these issues before coming to a conclusion about what to do.”

 

Auxiliary Introverted Feeling:

 

As an auxiliary function, Fi manifests as a method of reflecting on and assessing how the user feels about his or her past actions.

 

The auxiliary-Fi monologue: “I need to isolate myself to process how I feel about the activities I’ve been engaging in lately and decide whether or not to keep doing them.”

 

Tertiary Introverted Feeling:

 

As a tertiary function, Fi manifests as strong, unwavering set of morals and values which the user draws upon to dictate many of their major decisions.

 

The tertiary Fi monologue: “I must adhere to my values and morals at all costs – even if doing so is unpleasant.”

 

Inferior Introverted Feeling:

 

As an inferior function, Fi manifests as a general disdain for emotional expression and a fear of being perceived as ‘weak’ by others.

 

As Fi matures, its user will begin to identify the role their own personal morals play in their lives and allow those morals to take on a greater role in their decision-making process.

 

The inferior-Fi monologue (prior to maturation): “Feelings are for the weak. I have no time to attend to such trivial matters in either myself or others.”

 

OTHER LINKS

https://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers%E2%80%93Briggs_Type_Indicator

http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMKwEwwUqtE

 

 

 

 

Zodiac Signs: their strengths and weaknesses

By Douvri Angela, Bousia Georgia & Plota Margaret

2000-×-1500-horoscope-signs-1-1333x1000

Aries (21/3 – 20/4)

Strengths: courageous, determined, confident, enthusiastic, optimistic, honest and passionate

Weaknesses: impatient, moody, short-tempered, impulsive and aggressive

 

Taurus (21/4 – 20/5)

Strengths: reliable, patient, practical, devoted, responsible and stable

Weaknesses: stubborn, possessive and uncompromising

 

Gemini (21/5 – 21/6)

Strengths: gentle, affectionate, curious, adaptable, ability to learn quickly and exchange ideas

Weaknesses: nervous, inconsistent and indecisive

 

Cancer (22/6 – 22/7)

Strengths: tenacious, highly imaginative, loyal, emotional, sympathetic and persuasive

Weaknesses: moody, pessimistic, suspicious, manipulative and insecure

 

Leo (23/7 – 22/8)

Strengths: creative, passionate, generous, warm-hearted, cheerful, humorous

Weaknesses: arrogant, stubborn, self-centered, lazy, inflexible

 

Virgo(23/8 – 22/9)

Strengths: loyal, analytical, kind, hardworking, practical

Weaknesses: shyness, worry, overly critical of self and others, all work and no play

 

Libra (23/9 – 23/10)

Strengths: cooperative, diplomatic, gracious, fair-minded, social

Weaknesses: indecisive, avoids confrontations, will carry a grudge, self-pity

 

Scorpio (24/10 – 22/11)

Strengths: resourceful, brave, passionate, stubborn, a true friend

Weaknesses: distrusting, jealous, secretive, violent

 

Sagittarius (23/11 – 21/12)

Strengths: generous, idealistic, great sense of humor

Weaknesses: promises more than can deliver, very impatient, will say anything no matter how undiplomatic

 

Capricorn (22/12 – 20/1)

Strengths: responsible, disciplined, self-control, good managers

Weaknesses: know-it-all, unforgiving, condescending, expecting the worst

 

Aquarius (21/1 – 19/2)

Strengths: Progressive, original, independent, humanitarian

Weaknesses: Runs from emotional expression, temperamental, uncompromising, aloof

 

Pisces (20/2 – 20/3)

Strengths: Compassionate, artistic, intuitive, gentle, wise, musical

Weaknesses: Fearful, overly trusting, sad, desire to escape reality, can be a victim or a martyr

The Peculiar World of Mental Disorders

  By Koytra Eleni, Pantazopoulou Andriani & Chatzi Aggeliki 

 

A mental disorder, also called a mental illnessor psychiatric disorder, is a disease that causes mild to severe disturbances in thought and/or behavior, resulting in an inability to cope with life’s ordinary demands and routines. The use of the term «mental» (i.e., of the mind) is not necessarily meant to imply separateness from brain or body. There are many different categories of mental disorders, such as:

  • Anxiety disorders: In which anxiety, irrational stress, or fear interfere with the sufferer’s normal functioning. Most well-known of this category are  phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and  post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • Mood disorders: In which certain affective (mood/emotion) processes are damaged. Well-known examples of such disorders are major depression (also known as unipolar or clinical depression), bipolar disorder and dysthymia.
  • Psychotic disorders:  In which patterns of belief, language use and perception of reality can become disordered. Most common are schizophrenia and delusional disorder
  • Personality disorders: In which the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence thoughts and behaviors across situations and time are damaged for a long period of time. There are three main sub-categories of personality disorders:
  • The «eccentric», such as paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders
  • The «dramatic» or «emotional», such as antisocial, borderline, histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders
  • The  fear-related, such as anxious-avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-  compulsive personality disorders
  • Eating disorders:  In which the patient develops a disproportionate concern in matters of food and weight. Some such disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, exercise bulimia and binge-eating disorder.
  •  Sleep disorders such as insomnia, which involve disruption to normal sleep patterns, or a feeling of tiredness despite sleep appearing normal
  • Impulse control disorders: In which the sufferer is abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others. Most well-known from this category are kleptomania, pyromania and certain types of addiction.
  • Substance use disorders: In which a person is dependent on/abusing mostly illegal substances, such as alcohol, drugs or cigarettes
  • Dissociative identity disorders: In which the patient experiences severe disturbances of their self-identity, memory and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings. Most common are depersonalization disorderDissociative Identity Disorder (which has also been called multiple personality disorder, or «split personality”), amnesia and dementia.
  • Developmental disorders: They manifest during childhood. Most common are autism spectrum disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
 

  Now we are going to focus on some peculiar and rare mental disorders, which can be so singular and perplexing that they weren’t even accepted as legitimate disorders until recently. Some change the way language is used and perceived. Other unusual disorders do the same to vision or motor skills. And some are so bizarre that they alter a patient’s accent or make them believe they’re an entirely different species. Sufferers of these illnesses can lose control of their limbs, see afterimages everywhere, think their loved ones are imposters, and – in one inexplicable case – are made violently ill by the sound of one TV news anchor’s voice.

  • Aboulomania: This generally unknown mental disorder is characterized by crippling indecision, or as psychiatrists calls it, “paralysis of the will.” Sufferers of aboulomania appear mentally normal in all aspects of life. Yet, when faced with simple life choices like whether to wear a jacket or not, they run into major psychological problems to the point that they experience anxiety and may even find it difficult to regain normal function. Many sufferers say their chronic indecision originates from the need for 100% certainty—hence the sufferer can become paralyzed in the inability to fulfill his own free will when confronted with more than one choice. The condition has also been associated with depressive and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

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  • Cotard’s syndrome (walking corpse syndrome): is a specific nihilistic delusion named after Jules Cotard, a French neurologist, who first described the condition, which he called le délire de négation (negation delirium), in 1880. The affected person holds the delusional belief that he or she is already dead, does not exist, is putrefying or has lost his or her blood or internal organs. It is most frequently observed in patients with psychotic depression or schizophrenias and is managed by focusing on the treatment of the underlying disorder. In 2015 a seventeen-year-old girl from Alabama overcame this disorder with the help of Disney movies. She had thought she was dead for three years and only became convinced that she was alive only because of the warm and fuzzy feeling she got from watching Disney cartoons

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  • Capgrass syndrome: Named after a French psychiatrist who described the illusion of doubles, capgrass syndrome is a delusion of misidentification. which manifests as a reoccurring false perception that an acquaintance (usually a spouse or family member) has been replaced by an identical impostor or group of impostors. Capgras syndrome occurs most often in patients with schizophrenia, although it has also been reported in patients with dementia or epilepsy and after traumatic brain injury. It is also more common amongst women than men. In 2011, a woman refused to pick up her daughter from school because, as she insisted, the teachers should give her her “real child” back instead of the “fake”.

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  • Fregoli syndrome: It’s the inverse of Capgras syndrome, named after the Italian actor Leopoldo Fregoli, who was renowned for his ability to make quick changes of appearance during his stage act. It is also a delusion of misidentification and is characterized by a person’s delusional belief that persecutors or familiar people can assume the guise of strangers, in that different people are in fact a single person who changes his or her appearance or who appears in disguise. As in Capgras syndrome, Fregoli syndrome occurs most often in patients with schizophrenia, although it has also been reported in patients with dementia or epilepsy and after traumatic brain injury.

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  • Alien hand syndrome: Also known as “Dr. Strangelove Syndrome”, after the mad scientist unable to control his Nazi-saluting arm in the Stanley Kubrick film, this rare disorder is the misattribution and belief that one’s hand does not belong to oneself, but that it has its own life. The afflicted person has normal sensation but believes that the hand, while still being a part of their body, is acting autonomously, having «a will of its own.» In effect, afflicted people lose the sense of «ownership» of the limb, while often personifying it, believing it to be «possessed» by some spirit or entity. There is a clear distinction between the behaviors of the 2 hands in which the affected hand is viewed as «wayward» while the unaffected hand is under normal volitional control. Alien hand syndrome is usually caused by stroke or other brain damage, particularly in the areas of the corpus callosum, or frontal or parietal lobes. Such a condition can often be traumatic for the sufferer who is terrified that their rogue arm might start exhibiting inappropriate behavior in public, like groping others or manipulating objects or tools. “I would make a telephone call and this hand would hang up the phone…I would light a cigarette and this one would put it out. I would be drinking coffee and this hand would dump it,” patient Karen Byrne described

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  • Autophagia (Self cannibalism/autosarcophagy/Lesch-Nyhan syndrome): It is a disorder in which a person exhibits self-mutilating behavior or less commonly the consumption of his own body parts in a rare condition called autosarcophagy.  Lesch-Nyhan affects the joints, muscles and brain of the sufferer as a result of the overproduction of uric acid in the body, leading to compulsive lip and finger biting in the majority of cases. Consequently, in 60 percent of cases, patients have to have their teeth removed to prevent them from biting off their lips, cheeks and tongues. The condition, occurring almost exclusively in boys, has been related to impulse control disorders in general and can range from mild to life threatening. One example of autophagia is the case of one man whose condition apparently began by merely biting his own nails—but ended up with such a problem that he severely mutilated his fingers.

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  • Lycanthropy: Sufferers of the psychopathological phenomenon Lycanthropy actually believe they are an animal or at least being transformed into one. The condition is often classified as a self-identity disorder subdivided into various types. Scientists believe the disorder can originate in a dream before enveloping the entire awakened mind of the individual. Boanthropy is an aspect of this strange delusional disorder whereby a person believes himself to be a cow or an ox. Some people think that the disorder usually starts out as a dream and goes on to pervade the waking mind, eventually taking hold as a full-blown delusion. It’s possible that the condition can be induced by hypnotism, provided that the subject is more than a little suggestible. Nebuchadnezzar, King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, is generally thought to have suffered from this condition—at least according to the Book of Daniel, which states that he “was driven from men, and did eat grass as oxen.”

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  • Foreign accent syndrome: Is a very rare disorder characterized by the sudden and unexpected appearance of a seemingly “foreign” accent, which often occurs after some kind of brain injury like a stroke or head injury. The sufferer will begin speaking her native language in a foreign tongue. There have been 50 recorded cases of this syndrome, which apparently has no clear cause or cure, since the 1940s. The condition can last a few hours or become permanent. Imagine being born British only to one day wake up with a Chinese accent. That is exactly what happened to Sarah Colwill, a British woman hospitalized for an intense migraine who after surgery awoke with a Chinese accent, which changed her whole life having to deal with other people’s bewildered reactions and come to terms with her new voice.Linda Walker, 50, recalls waking from a stroke to find that her English Geordie accent had been transformed into a Jamaican one: «I’ve lost my identity, because I never talked like this before. I’m a very different person and it’s strange and I don’t like it,” she told the BBC.

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  • Landau-Kleffner syndrome: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare form of epilepsy, which usually begins in children between 2 and 8 years old and affects both sexes equally, especially children with previous age-appropriate development. The language disorder may start suddenly or slowly. It usually affects the child’s understanding of spoken language the most, although it may affect both understanding speech and speaking ability, or speaking only.

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  • Synesthesia: This neurological phenomenon occurs when stimulation of one sense leads to involuntary experiences in another sense or a “union of the senses,” where for example taste and sound are mixed together. Some people experience colour when they hear sounds or read words and may be able to answer a question like «What color is 4?». This condition is most useful to artists, with Pharrell Williams and Lady Gaga being both famous synesthetes. In some cases, a person may mix sound and taste so that different noises have a taste in any combination. The condition isn’t considered a disease or much of an illness since its effects are not negative. «One thing we have found is that synesthetes are not a different class of people, they simply have more explicit experiences,» Julia Simner, co-author of The Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia told the Guardian. «It’s a more extreme manifestation of what all of us experience.”

10  THE DIFFERENT SENSORY AREAS IN THE BRAIN HAVE A STRONGER CONNECTION IN SYNESTHETIC BRAINS  

Here’s an additional explanatory video if you want to get to know more about synesthesia:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vEqmNX8uKlA        

 

In conclusion, the human mind never ceases to amaze us with all its complexity. It is the most complex machine ever created; and the most ubiquitous. Although  everyone has one, we still have little to no understanding of how it works. Even its illnesses and flaws can be fascinating. Those listed are only a few of the wonderful yet monstrous things that are likely to happen once something goes wrong with it. We all hope we inspired you to dive further into this peculiar world.    

 

SOURCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY  

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_disorder http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/recognizing-warning-signs https://www.medscape.com/features/slideshow/rare-psych#4 https://www.alternet.org/personal-health/12-quirky-mental-disorders-you-havent-heard-about https://listverse.com/2013/05/06/10-more-bizarre-psychological-disorders/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPOkuDm7LtM https://www.google.gr/search?q=walking+corpse+syndrome&client=firefox-b-ab&dcr=0&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjf_encyKrYAhVMalAKHY2fDBoQ_AUICigB&biw=1366&bih=635#imgrc=5sWXOMLW4tVQ_M: https://www.google.gr/search?q=capgras+syndrome&client=firefox-b&dcr=0&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi61_aQzKrYAhXQh7QKHRrrABkQ_AUICigB&biw=1366&bih=635#imgrc=WZXewEJw6OQswM: https://www.google.gr/search?q=boanthropy&client=firefox-b&dcr=0&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwizlNPQ4qrYAhVIK1AKHRhcBhgQ_AUICigB&biw=1366&bih=635#imgrc=p00p6tB9d6IoeM: https://www.google.gr/search?q=landeau+kleffner&rlz=1C1CHZL_elGB698GB698&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiF8sD607LYAhWJbZoKHXRhDRcQ_AUICigB&biw=1396&bih=690#imgrc=zoYEaDk3-mUIvM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vEqmNX8uKlA https://synesthesia.com/blog/index.php/what-is-synesthesia/                

The Role of Memories in our Life

By Irene Verikiou and Gilda Mazaraki (A Class)

memories

Memories, without doubt, are indicative of our lifelong experiences, evoke both positive and negative feelings and are a means of comparing the presence with the past.

 

 People derive pleasure and satisfaction from conjuring up memories of the past with friends or family. Memories are a source of contentment for everyone, as discussing about past experiences with peers generates intense feelings. As people we have an inclination to constantly compare our current situation with our lives in the past by bringing memories in our minds. Undoubtedly, if this becomes a habit we may lose the sense of now and subconsciously keep identifying with our past personality. However, thinking about our old personality can stimulate our thoughts and motivate us to work harder and perform better than before.

 

Another perception of the role of memories is that they are a combination of experiences that have contributed significantly to our lives and have developed our personalities. All we are is a number of experiences that have had an indelible impression on us and have hammered our personality accordingly. Contrarily, memories do not always tell the truth. We should not rely on one’s memories regarding an event, since each person may perceive this differently. More clearly, each person remembers what impressed them most and according to their own perspective. For example, a child’s memories about a walk in the park differ from those of his parents.

 Ultimately, memories play a constitutive part in people’s lives; they are a valuable source of experiences and pleasures of life and if we use them the right way, we can even improve ourselves.

Depression: What is it and how do we recognize it?

By Tsipi Maria & Panagiotou Nefeli-Stavroula (A Class)

We’ve all heard of depression, at least once in our lives. We know that some people suffer from it, but do we really know what it is? Do we understand how these people feel? Probably not. And that’s the exact purpose of the article you’re about to read.

 Καταγραφή

Definition: What Is Depression?

Depression is a serious mood disorder, a state of low mood. Depression affects a person’s feelings, behaviour and even thoughts. Someone that suffers from depression usually shows no interest in lots of activities they used to be keen on, refuses to socialize or in serious cases attempts to commit suicide. Most people think that, depressed is someone who simply feels sad or lonely at particular times but in reality, these people suffer a lot more than we think, as depression can cause insomnia, eating disorders or even aches and pains without any physical causes. So, depressed mood can either be a normal reaction – as long as it doesn’t last for a long time – or a symptom of a psychiatric disorder such as major depressive disorder.

 

Types of Depression

  1. Major Depression is characterized by intense feeling of sadness.
  2. Dysthymic disorder is a less intense type of Depression, but it persists on a longer period of time.
  3. Adjustment disorders occur when an individual responds negatively to a stressful event.
  4. Postpartum Depression is Depression that occurs after giving birth.
  5. Manic Depression or bipolar disorders is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person’s mood.
  6. Psychotic Depression includes some features of psychosis, such as hallucinations or delusions.
  7. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of Depression that comes on in the winter months when the sun is sparse.

 

Signs and Symptoms of Depression

But how can we recognize depression? How can we understand if a person is depressed or not? Well, we usually acknowledge depression from its symptoms. People that experience these symptoms for a long period of time, almost every day for more than two weeks, are likely to have depression:

  • Feeling sad, anxious most of the time for no particular reason
  • Losing interest for activities they used to be keen on
  • Feeling tired, decreased energy
  • Thinking about death or committing suicide
  • Losing appetite, having some sort of eating disorder
  • Becoming a pessimist, having a continuous feeling of guilt and negativity
  • Suffering from insomnia, having a sleeping disorder
  • Suffering from aches or pains with no physical cause

 

Depressed people don’t always have these symptoms or show these signs, as each case of depression is different, depending on the person and how serious the case is. These symptoms may appear on the first stage of the illness or even on the final stage.

 

What YOU can do

If you realize you have some of the symptoms above, the first thing you should do is visit a doctor. They will give you a treatment that can help you. But beyond the treatment, there are some things you can do if you realize that you’re probably suffering from depression or you’re suspicious that some member of your family or loved one is going through a situation like this.

  • First of all, you should try to be more optimistic. Set goals and make yourself believe that you can achieve them.
  • Don’t be afraid to open up to people. Make friends and keep them close and don’t forget that you’re not alone and there are people who care for you.
  • Don’t give up on yourself easily if you feel you can’t achieve something. Situations change gradually and not immediately. So if you can’t achieve a goal, just wait and try again.
  • Finally, make sure you’re always aware and knowledgeable. Being ignorant can stop you from preventing a situation like this. If you’re well-informed about such problems then you can help yourself or somebody else to prevent it from getting worse.

If you’re going through something like this, then remember that you shouldn’t be alone. Don’t be afraid to speak about it. That way you can protect yourself or a loved one that could be suffering.

 

Sources:

  • https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml#part_145398
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depression_(mood)

How much of yourself can you actually be?

By George Tsapikounis (A Class)

 How much of yourself can you really be

Despite the fact that this question seems a bit confusing, when someone thinks of how he can possibly be anyone else than himself, it gets really interesting when we interpret it at a sociological approach.

In modern society, due to the given importance of a first impression, a large proportion of people, in their effort to accomplish a smooth socialization, lose sight of the target and tend to present an improved version of their self, rather than their own unique personality, in order to become appealing to others. However, most of the time their behaviour is not based on their personal choice but it is enforced in an indirect manner by the current social surroundings. As a result, apart from their hallucinatory feeling of inadequacy, their personality varies according to the current circumstances, ending up being many-faced persons that lack their own characteristic identity. Consequently, they fall victims of social conformism and cannot enter society as they truly are, while instead they become unable to enjoy the benefits of a smooth socialization such as self-confidence and seamless communication.

In conclusion, as much as acceptable we want to be, we should question ourselves whether it is really worth it to change our true personality to achieve it.

I am happy!

 By Kollarou Dimitra (A Class)

αρχείο λήψης

Being happy is nothing but a state of mind. Everyone is seeking happiness. But where can it be found? Is there a map?

If there has been one time in my life when I truly felt happy and complete, I think it was last year. It was a hot, mid-August, summer night, so my friend Caroline and I decided to take a walk on the beach. After looking at the ocean for a while we decided to lie down and gaze at the stars. For a moment there I closed my eyes and carefully listened to the waves crashing onto the shore. The feeling I got when I opened my eyes…. was “happiness”. That simple – yet magical – moment was my moment of happiness. Nature made me happy with its simple and yet magical beauty. The combination of the ocean, the stars and the moon was so ordinary and unique at the same time. Such a paradox I thought at the time.

Many people associate the feeling of happiness with possessions and money. Well, definitely having some money contributes to a feeling of happiness, but real happiness is not hidden in material things but in moments shared with our beloved ones. Giving and sharing is another way which might lead someone to be happy because it has been scientifically proved that, when we give and we make other people happy, we ourselves become happier! For me, the most important thing to understand in order to feel happy is to feel gratitude. Every single one of us should start appreciating what we have: simple things, nature, food, water. People should stop chasing something bigger and start feeling thankful for what they already have. That is why, in my opinion, the pursuit of happiness is pointless. Happiness is going to come to every single one of us if we stop chasing it. We need to stop and catch our breath for a moment and thank ourselves for where we have arrived and then thank nature for all it has offered us.

Happiness is like love, it comes whenever you are ready to receive it. It is out there in the simplicity and at the same time complexity of nature. Happiness is out there in nature as Oscar Wild said: ‘’ with the moon, the stars and a book who couldn’t be happy?‘’

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There is a very interesting talk of Michael Norton, a Social science researcher, about how money actually CAN bring happiness. Read it at: https://www.ted.com/talks/michael_norton_how_to_buy_happiness#

 

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