Στήλη: Social Issues

Should the Money of a Country Be Spent to Explore the Space?

By Christeli Paraskevi & Paraskevopoulou Konstantina

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Many countries which have scientists and experts on space exploration spend a lot of money on equipment, rather than for other, more important reasons.
Firstly, space is something that makes many people want to see it with their own eyes: different environment, different natural resources and different ways of living. Astronauts travel and explore so we learn more about it, and may be able one day to see it and live there ourselves.
Secondly, astronauts need a lot of money for their food (their pills), their equipment (so as to be safe and have oxygen to breath) and their shelter (bathroom and space to sleep). Also, they have to gain some money because by travelling in space, they put their lives at risk, so they have to be sure that they leave behind something for their families if something happens.
On the one hand, space exploration is useful and interesting, but on the other, it costs money that could be spent in a better way and provide their country with more goods. In countries like the USA and Russia, there are many people who starve every day and faint in the roads. Important organizations which help them cannot feed all those who come every day and beg  for food.
Also, people with no money live in the dirty roads, with mice and other dangerous animals which can make someone go to the hospital. Illnesses are around, people die and noone stands by them or lend them some money. They are helpless and their country is not able to help them in any way.
To sum up, money could be spent in better ways like feeding the world or finding them a place to live. Money should not be spent on space exploration because countries have more important problems than to see the space.

Why do people believe in Conspiracy Theories?

By Elena Melitsopoulou

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A great percentage of population worldwide believes in Conspiracy Theories and think of them as an accurate source of specific events. In particular, 50% of America’s citizens consider many popular theories to be true, even though there is no evidence of their very existence.

But what is a conspiracy theory? For those few of you who haven’t heard this term before, it is a belief that some covert but influential organization is responsible for a circumstance or event. For instance, one of the most noted theories is about the 9/11 collapse of the Twin Towers in Manhattan in 2001. According to this one, it is strongly suspected that the towers did not collapse due to the collision of two hijacked airliners, but because of bombs placed on the basements of the two buildings, either from al-Qaeda or even from the American government.

This theory and so many others were established in many peoples’ minds and had as a consequence credulity to root as a form of social behaviour. Referring to a recent survey of Time’s, about 42% of people without a high school education believe in at least one conspiracy theory, compared to 23% of people with a post-graduate degree. There is therefore a connection between conspiracy beliefs and educational levels.

Furthermore, belief in conspiracy theories is primarily driven by a constant urge to avoid uncertainty, something that we deeply despise. Forming conspiracy theories seems to be a coping mechanism to regain certainty or control, while conspiracy thinkers are often known to display negative emotions that result from over-analysis or paranoia. An experiment conducted by Galinsky, had as a result that conspiracy theories were fodder for people who also tended to find patterns in other areas of life, such as believing in superstitions and religious prophecies.

Another research by Lantian et al.’s (2017) examined the role of a person’s need for uniqueness and a belief of conspiracy theories, and found a correlation. Characteristically:

“We argue that people high in need for uniqueness should be more likely than others to endorse conspiracy beliefs because conspiracy theories represent the possession of unconventional and potentially scarce information. […] Moreover, conspiracy theories rely on narratives that refer to secret knowledge (Mason, 2002) or information, which, by definition, is not accessible to everyone, otherwise it would not be a secret and it would be a well-known fact.

People who believe in conspiracy theories can feel “special,” in a positive sense, because they may feel that they are more informed than others about important social and political events. […]

Our findings can also be connected to recent research demonstrating that individual narcissism, or a grandiose idea of the self, is positively related to belief in conspiracy theories. Interestingly, Cichocka et al. (2016) found that paranoid thought mediates the relationship between individual narcissism and conspiracy beliefs.”

Moulding et al. (2016) also dug into the characteristics of people who believe in conspiracy theories in two studies.

“It has been noted that individuals who endorse conspiracy theories are likely to be higher in powerlessness, social isolation and anomia, which is broadly defined as a subjective disengagement from social norms.

Such disengagement from the normative social order may result in greater conspiratorial thinking for a number of related reasons. First, individuals who feel alienated may consequently reject conventional explanations of events, as they reject the legitimacy of the source of these explanations. Due to these individuals feeling alienated from their peers, they may also turn to conspiracist groups for a sense of belonging and community, or to marginalised subcultures in which conspiracy theories are potentially more rife.

People who feel powerless may also endorse conspiracy theories as they also help the individual avoid blame for their predicament. In this sense, conspiracy theories give a sense of meaning and security over an unpredictable and dangerous world.”

Sometimes we shouldn’t ascribe the worst motives to people who believe in outlandish conspiracy theories. Sometimes, these motives may arise from the inability of people to accept, and process unpleasant facts. Inventing a story to explain the cause of a disagreeable event functions as a defence mechanism from actually coping with the specific tragedy or misfortune.

As a consequence of believing in conspiracy theories erodes people’s trust in their government, their leaders, and their institutions. It also diminishes trust in science and research itself. This distrust may discourage people from participating in their social worlds. It might also cause people to stop seeing themselves as valuable contributors to society.

Believing in things that are not true poses a number of dangers as well, which can have real effects that impact individual behaviour and ultimately have a ripple impact on society as a whole. Failing to address dangerous misbeliefs presents a potential danger to public health and even the political process itself. Faulty beliefs lead can lead people to not vaccinate, not vote, or, in some rare cases, even engage in dangerous or violent behaviour.

Ultimately, conspiracy theories aren’t going away, for as long as there are people who have a need to believe in them, they will continue to expand and thrive. People will only believe what they want to believe. Believing the truth may not be as much fun as believing myths, but it makes for a better mind — and a better culture, too.

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Peer Pressure

By Anastasios Tzefrios

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           A great deal is being written and said about peer pressure. It is generally agreed today that peer pressure as an empirical phenomenon has been observed repeatedly among young people and it can cause a multitude of problems. Whether it is positive peer pressure or negative peer pressure, it can affect the adolescent. It can be very strong for everybody because we all want approval and acceptance. As far as I am concerned, I would like to discover the consequences of peer pressure. However, solutions can be found, and if adolescents are given the right advice on handling it, they will feel more confident.

 

To begin with, a common danger is the stress that adolescents feel, when they are subjected to peer pressure. More specifically, the compromises they have to make in order to be accepted by a group of peers may contrast with their interests and desires and of course this is most stressful for any teenager. Furthermore, peer pressure may lead to adolescents’ risky behaviour and illegal acts such as shoplifting. What is more, peer pressure can even lead to drink, smoke, cheat on a test, lying, etc. On top of all that, peer pressure can influence performance at school. For instance, teenagers are less willing to study when their friends of their group do not consider studying important.

 

Nevertheless, there are ways to deal with the problem effectively. First and foremost, being able to stand up to peer pressure is important.

As far as I am concerned, teenagers should realise that they have the right to reject doing something if they do not feel comfortable with it. Last but not least, it is important to emphasize that it is better for adolescents to find some friends with common interest so as not to be subjected to peer pressure. Only when teenagers put the aforementioned solutions into practice, will they see positive results. Thus, all of these points given above prove that were we to make an essential change in our lifestyle, we could start by cutting down on this common phenomenon among teenagers these years because of the harmful consequences.

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          To sum up, it is obvious that the problems resulting from peer pressure are serious but, fortunately, there are measures which can be taken to solve them and tackle the problem effectively.

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Elimination Of Terrorist Attacks

By Helen Kaspiri & Joanna Zirou

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In our modern era of the prevalence of broadminded believes and the respect to human rights, there are still obscure happenings that underestimate human worth. Such events are related to terrorism over mainly religious aspects. To my view, the solution of this problem and the effective protection of the targeted countries require the avid action of all the governments worldwide.

 

In a first place, it is vital that those who are in political power take firm measures for the prevention of a terrorist attack. What I mean is that people should be informed about the topic and be properly educated. Virtues, such as the freedom of choosing a religion, human rights and the mutual feelings of love and respect among people globally should be extensively emphasized. Those who have really the power to do so are families and the way they raise their children, schools and of course represents of religions. In this way, people all around the world will firm emotions of esteemation and democracy, principles that will prevent them from committing a terrorist attack.

 Καταγραφή

Furthermore, there is no doubt that certain nations are more vulnerable to such events. In order to protect those countries, it is vital that governments enhance their police force. Strict security checks should be conducted by the police in crowded places that are common targets of terrorists. Moreover, police should carry out investigations in order to find out prospective terrorists and imprison them. Last but not least, it is urgent that constant interrogations take place in all the ports, airports and borders of the countries. As a result, the safety of those nations will be ensured.

 

To sum up, terrorism is a tragic criminal action and must be eliminated worldwide. There are measures that governments can take so as to offer a solution to the problem and provide citizens with safety and security. We don’t have to be the same or believe the same. We are equal after all.

 

Image Sources:

https://images.app.goo.gl/7sVxdSHmyWvEgmzeA
https://images.app.goo.gl/3FT8q1gZcFAydqa38

Human Rights crossword

By Bousia Aggeliki, Belezou Chryssa & Moshou Ioanna

human rights crossword

Across

2. Everyone is R……….. for their actions.

4. A synonym of the word “consideration”: T…………..

5. Primary school should be free, because we all have the right of free E…………….

7. We only have one and it doesn’t last forever: L……………

8. A person’s right to control access to his/hers personal information: P……………….

 Down

1. Through language we all have the opportunity to E………. ourselves.

3. They’re all Greeks, so they have the same N……………….

6. A programme that uses public funds to provide a degree of economic security is described as s……………… security

Respect and Equality by all for all

By Spiros Koutsogiannopoulos

Respect and Equality by all for all

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Disabled people have rights and we should respect them!!

Poverty is a Global Problem

By Dimitris Bousias, Korina Papastathopoulou & Konstantinos Skoutas

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Over the last 20 years or so, global poverty has been declining; however, some countries are still poor. There are many causes of poverty and they lead to negative consequences in our community. The government ought to help the poor people.

To begin with, according to experts, war is the most important cause of poverty. Many people live in war-zones and these zones are very poor. In particular, in Africa people have been for years in conflict and as a result, goods are insufficient and people live in poverty. Also, many countries have weak economy and the residents hardly make ends meet, because they cannot find a job. Another cause of poverty is overpopulation. In fact, there are many people who live in each country and they cannot find a job there; as a result, many people are unemployed and they live without the basic. That is, they lack money and food. Also, they have lack of healthy foods and that may lead to diseases. Moreover, many people do not know how to write and how to read and as a result, they have few chances to find a job. To be specific, in many countries where there is poverty, people do not have the chance to go to school or to do extra-curricular activities.

Furthermore, poverty has many more negative consequences. One important consequence is poor health. People do not afford to buy nutritious food and that leads to many diseases. In addition, people have lack of sanitation, because they are homeless. Still many residents live in the streets and these people need food and shelter. Hence, our community ought to help these people. Another consequence of war is that people resort to crime in order to survive, because the government does not help them. In addition, there is social instability that leads to discriminations between social classes.

In conclusion, poverty has negative effects all over the world. Our community must tackle these problems. I believe that poverty is a very important issue and all residents ought to help poor people. If we achieve this, our community will be better.

 

The Role of Women in the East

 By Maria Galanopoulou & Marielen Alexopoulou

 

The status of women in today’s society is considerably improved compared to previous years. However, discrimination continues to date, society continues to be demeaning towards women and there are still many obstacles to gender equality, despite the efforts being made.

In particular, women in many East European countries do not have the right to express their personal opinion and are under the control of their husbands. It is the duty of women to succumb to the desires of their spouses. Also, women in Saudi Arabia face problems taking part in sports. The first female gymnast participating in the London Olympics faced the racism of homogeneous groups and had to be accompanied by a «guard» man wearing appropriate clothing covering most of her body and hair.
Saudi Arabia is considered to have one of the most ruthless systems in the world, often limiting the role of women in society. Female residents are not able to leave the home, not even to visit the doctor without the escort of their husband or some other male family member. Moreover, women do not have the right to dress in a way that emphasizes their beauty or even wear makeup. The majority are forced to wear a long black garment called ‘’abaya or burqa’’ or cover their head and face with a headscarf. They are also forbidden to bathe in public places, such as swimming pools, or go to gyms.

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 THE QURAN

Diminishing excerpts, degrading women, from the Quran which is the holy book of the Muslims.

Chapter Two ‘’The Cow’’
222. When asked about women’s menstruation, answer: <This is an obstacle. Do not come in contact with them during this time and do not mix with them until they become clean. Then come back to them, as God commandes you. The Lord loves the pure and those who repent. >
223. Your women are your field. So go to your field any way you like, but previously, do something about your soul. [...]

 

Chapter Four ‘’Women’’

3. If you are afraid that you will not behave honestly to orphaned girls, then take two, three or four wives of your choice. Still, if you are afraid that you do not treat them honestly, marry only one woman or any other captive who subdues the power of your hand. This behavior will lift you.

15. If one of your women commits adultery, call four witnesses, and if they affirm it, then keep her in the home until she dies or until God gives her a means of salvation.

34. Men are superior to women because of the uniqueness with which God lifted them above women [.......] Those whose disobedience you fear, scold, remove from your bed and beat them. But if they are obedient, be good to them. The Lord is high and mighty.


Chapter  ‘’The Bee’’

58. If the birth of a daughter is announced, the father immediately goes pale and is speechless due to sorrow.

 59. He hides from others because he is ashamed of the terrible announcement. Therefore, he either has to keep her and suffer the shame or bury her in the sand.

Chapter ‘’The Light’’
2. The adulter and the adulteress are punished with one hundred beatings. Do not be lenient in enforcing God’s Will if you believe in Him.

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How is Feminism Called in its Historical Course?

 By Fay Tsami (A Class)

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Feminism is a range of ideologies and political and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist advocates or supports the rights and equality of women.

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When it comes to the historical flashback, the feminine movement is separated in three waves. The first feminist wave (18-20 centuries) is related to the organization and the assertion of basic human rights such as the right to vote, dignity, recognition of social role and social status, the right to manage their personal property and the emancipation from their fathers, spouses and men in general. The Second Wave (1960-1980) deals with issues such as social and biological separation and the elimination of inequalities between women and men who come from a defined biological background and can be eliminated with some social interventions. The third feminist wave (late 1980s to 2000) includes the conscious awakening of colorful women, critical theory, internationalism and the overthrow of perceived oppression by patriarchy.

As evidenced by the circumstances of the present season, the objectives of feminism have not been fully achieved, as in the 21st century there is still no gender equality. According to surveys in the workplace, women’s overall earnings continue to be lower and women are subject to anecdotal treatment. In accordance with their social life, the situation in different countries varies according to the religious beliefs and the legislation. In the countries of the western world the situation is better in contrast to the eastern countries where the differences and the inequalities are constantly inflaming.

Many times nowadays feminism is considered out of date because equality has already been enshrined and these issues have served older generations. However, the legislative guarantee of gender equality is not always guaranteed in practice. Consequently, the feminist movement has gathered great successes in the web, but the fight for the full realization of women’s rights is long gone. We must not rest because women are not facing problems like the 18th century (at least the majority) but are active in the fight to resolve all the problems, not just our own, and to fully guarantee equality.

 

 

 

 

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Slavery: A profitable industry that still exists today

By Panagiotis Nikolakopoulos (A Class)

 Κύρια εικόνα

‘Slavery is to this day an industry that produces huge profits, but also countless wasted lives in the name of greediness for wealth.’

One hundred and fifty-two years ago, the Thirteenth Amendment was added in the American Constitution, formally abolishing serfdom and slavery. However, despite the fact that the majority of countries worldwide adopted laws that abolished slavery, servitude remains a phenomenon still existing today. But, not only are there slaves to this day, but also their number has been increased rapidly. In particular, today there are approximately forty-five million eight hundred thousand slaves all over the world.

 

Slavery has existed for thousands of years, but economic and social forces have enabled its alarming resurgence in the past few decades. According to research conducted by the United Nations, there are tens of millions of people trapped in various forms of slavery throughout the world today, generating $150 billion each year in illicit profits for traffickers. Particularly, about 50 percent toil in forced labor slavery in industries where manual labor is needed—such as farming, logging, mining, fishing, and brick making—and in service industries. Moreover, about 12.5 percent are trapped in forced prostitution sex slavery, and about 37.5 percent are trapped in early or forced marriages. Also, millions of people today work as bonded laborers. The cycle begins when they take extreme loans under the condition that they work off the debt. As far as child slavery is concerned, about 25 percent of today’s slaves are children.

 

As mentioned above, slavery is a problem which exists in every country, including ours, Greece, and nations of the European Union. However, because slavery is officially abolished everywhere, the practice is illegal, and thus little information about slaves are at our disposal, because slave traders are constantly moving to new places and because they manage to keep their identity secret. This applies to the purchasers too, which are for example factory owners, who manage to conceal the truth and their activities remain a guarded secret. Nevertheless, we know that slaves work long hours under terrible working conditions without being paid or with meager salaries. Furthermore, they are not given the opportunity to be involved in anything else besides their work, while their rights are being violated. For instance, children do not have access to education and the right to be educated.

 

Additionally, we have available information about the ways in which a slave is obtained. According to international organizations and witnesses, slaves can be obtained through trade, fraud, blackmail, abduction, coercion or even marriage. In many cases, husbands driven by greediness and other personal motives, exploit their wives or force them into prostitution.

 

Despite being illegal in every nation, slavery is still present. Slaves can be an attractive investment because the slave-owner only needs to pay for sustenance and supervision. Countries that lack education, economic freedom, the rule of law, and have poor societal structure can create an environment that fosters the acceptance and propagation of slavery. To be more specific, about 58 percent of slaves live in India, Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and Uzbekistan. 

 

 Εικόνα 1

 

To sum up, contemporary slavery is undoubtedly an appalling and terrible phenomenon. The main reason why slavery exists is our intertemporal need for inexpensive workforce and our constantly increasing avarice and desire for wealth.Slavery is to this day an industry that produces huge profits, but also countless wasted lives in the name of greediness for wealth. Modern slavery stems from our greed and prejudice, and undeniably from social inequalities. As a result, according to officials and according to research, nowadays there are globally more slaves than any other time in human history. Nevertheless, it is a problem which we need to solve immediately and which requires our activation in every level and our constant alertness.

Εικόνα 2

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