Στήλη: Science-Technology

Οur Environment Is in Danger

By Marigianna Fotopoulou

Nowadays, it is well known that the environment is exposed to certain human actions that gradually lead to its destruction. However, many of us are not able to realize that, at the right moment, which exacerbates the already bad situation. All our bad habits can, in a short period of time, affect the world in which we live even if it was not our initial desire. However, we can now significantly improve this bad situation and ensure a good end. We are all able to incorporate into our everyday life some habits that will contribute to this and to leave behind some others that may not help so much.

The first thing we can do is to incorporate recycling into our daily lives. Recycling is a process through which the natural resources of our planet are saved. All we have to do is «separate» our garbage and then transfer glass, paper and plastic to the special blue bins that exist. In addition, we can move around the city by bicycle or even by means of public transportation, to reduce as much as possible the exhaust gas and the environmental pollution. We can even walk to our destination, at least if it is a short route. After all, this will not only be good for the environment but also for our general health, so it is good to take it into account.

 Moreover, the environment can benefit from the energy savings we make in our home but also in other indoor areas. So, by turning off the lights before leaving a room, as well as turning off all electrical appliances from the main electrical panel when we are away from home, we can protect the environment but also reduce our monthly expenses. Two in one! Finally, we can make the products we need ourselves. That is, ecological products, the ones we use to clean our home for example, which will not burden the environment more.

Αs we can perceive, it is easy to see the differences between our behavior and the behavior we should adopt, whether it is a big difference or not. Hereafter, we all need to do something to solve the problem of environmental pollution. Thanks to this environment we are alive, but we must do our best, so that this life is of high quality but also of long duration. We may not understand the change soon but in the long run, we will realize what we have achieved and we will feel proud, and healthier!

 Καταγραφή

 

 

        The more you care,

 

 The more you live!!!

AMD CPU

By Paris Drakoulelis

 

The subject of the text is the most well-known computer processors in the last decade around the world, the AMD. It is one of the top companies that produces technological products with such amazing quality in products regardless of price.

Founded: on May 1, 1969 by Jerry Sanders, an excellent mathematician, engineer and businessman born in Chicago, USA, where he founded his first company.

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AMD HEADQUARTERS (ADVANCED MIXED DEVICES) IN CALIFORNIA

 

 

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AMD FOUNDER Jerry Sanders on the fiftieth birthday of his company.

 

 

AMD’s first processor in collaboration with INTEL was the AMD x86, a product that competed with the Intel model of the INTEL 8086 CPU.

There was not much demand for AMD processors in those years. Intel, on the other hand, has made tremendous sales to many well-known companies.

 

 33      AMD’s first processor

44       Intel’s awesome sales processor

 

Things changed in the 21st century when AMD also started making series gaming graphics cards that were satisfactory to the average gamer and challenged Nvidia, which had dominated in previous years. So AMD started selling millions of pieces worldwide and somehow it evolved into what it is today.

 

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Thus, in 2017, AMD’s ATHLON series were created, which were the most budget solutions for the world that did not have to pay 200-300 euros to buy an intel processor.

In May 2017, two months after the creation of ATHLON, AMD created the RYZEN series which had tremendous performance and for most people was their basic choice for their computer.

In the summer of 2019 he built the ZEN 2 series architecture of 7 nanometers where 3 months later they built the THREAD RIPPER series with the architecture of 8 nanometers. It was and is the most expensive processors with the latest one «reaching» the value of 4500 euros. AMD has exceeded 5 billion sales with their RYZEN line, something that has started to scare intel as their sales have fallen sharply. While with ZEN 2 architecture and THREADRIPPER it has reached 10 billion sales.

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AMD Athlon processors

 

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The latest model in the RYZEN series of processors

 

88    The most expensive AMD RYZEN THREADRIPPER processor with a value of 4500 euros and one of the largest in size.

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The size of such an expensive processor!

 

 

In conclusion, AMD has grown incredibly in 50 years and although it has become more expensive in the last 2 years, it has also produced quality products with budget prices for people with little money and I believe that it will become the main choice of the world.

 

Source: Wikipedia

FORD MUSTANG

By Dimitris Droukas

 φφφφ

The Ford Mustang is a series of American automobiles manufactured by Ford. In continuous production since 1964, the Mustang is currently the longest-produced Ford car nameplate. Currently in its sixth generation, it is the fifth-best selling Ford car nameplate. The namesake of the «pony car» automobile segment, the Mustang was developed as a highly styled line of sporty coupes and convertibles derived from existing model lines, initially distinguished by «long hood, short deck» proportions.

 

Originally predicted to sell 100,000 vehicles yearly, the 1965 Mustang became the most successful vehicle launch since the 1927 Model A.Introduced on April 17, 1964 (16 days after the Plymouth Barracuda), over 400,000 units in its first year; the one-millionth Mustang was sold within two years of its launch. In August 2018, Ford produced the 10-millionth Mustang; matching the first 1965 Mustang, the vehicle was a 2019 Wimbledon White convertible with a V8 engine.

 

The success of the Mustang launch would lead to multiple competitors from other American manufacturers, including the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird (1967), AMC Javelin (1968), and Dodge Challenger(1970). The Mustang would also have an effect on designs of coupés worldwide, leading to the marketing of the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri in the United States (the latter, by Lincoln-Mercury). The Mercury Cougar was launched in 1967 as a higher-trim version of the Mustang; during the 1970s, it was repackaged as a personal luxury car.

 1111

For 1965 to 2004, the Mustang shared chassis commonality with other Ford model lines, staying rear-wheel drive throughout its production. From 1965 to 1973, the Mustang was derived from the 1960 Ford Falcon compact. From 1974 to 1978, the Mustang (denoted Mustang II) was a longer-wheelbase version of the Ford Pinto. From 1979 to 2004, the Mustang shared its Fox platform chassis with 14 other Ford vehicles (becoming the final one to use the Fox architecture). Since 2005, Ford has produced two generations of the Mustang, each using a distinct platform unique to the model line.

 

Through its production, multiple nameplates have been associated with the Ford Mustang series, including GT, Mach 1, Boss 302/429, Cobra (separate from Shelby Cobra), and Bullitt, along with «5.0″ fender badging (denoting 4.9L OHV or 5.0L DOHC V8 engines).

 

HISTORY OF FORD MUSTANG

 σσσ

Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark. The Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second «race» prototype. His lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.

 

An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the «Mustang» name for Ford’s new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar (early styling bucks can be seen wearing a Cougar grille emblem) or Torino (an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II. As the person responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added «Mustang» to the list to be tested by focus groups; «Mustang,» by a wide margin, came out on top under the heading: «Suitability as Name for the Special Car.» The name could not be used in Germany, however, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, also used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the «T-5″ until December 1978.

 

PRICE OF FORD MUSTANG

 

Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark. The Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second «race» prototype. His lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.

 

An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the «Mustang» name for Ford’s new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar (early styling bucks can be seen wearing a Cougar grille emblem) or Torino (an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II. As the person responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added «Mustang» to the list to be tested by focus groups; «Mustang,» by a wide margin, came out on top under the heading: «Suitability as Name for the Special Car.» The name could not be used in Germany, however, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, also used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the «T-5″ until December 1978.

 

THAT WAS A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF FORD MUSTANG (HISTORY, PRICE, etc)

 

Our Planet

By Vassiliki Apostolopoulou

Most of us are aware of the threat of climate change. The thing we can do to prevent or at least diminish this threat is to economize, not so much financially, but on the natural resources that we consume every day. In other words, we should all…

economize on water

The world’s fresh water is in short supply and millions of people have no access to it. To save on water, we should not leave the tap running and also taking a shower is preferable to having a bath.

economize on fuels

The consumption of fuels, especially oil and natural gas creates fumes and toxic gases. We ought to walk short distances and avoid going by car. In this way, less exhaust fumes will be released in the atmosphere. Moreover, to keep ourselves warm we should wear thick clothes and close all the windows at home, instead of turning on the heat.

economize on household waste

To ease the volume of urban trash, which are hazardous for every citizen, we should try recycling and using reusable products, so that our environmental footprint will be diminished.

economize on electricity

When it comes to keeping electricity consumption to a minimum, we can all try to turn off unnecessary lights when we exit a room and switch off devices and electrical equipment that we do not need.

All in all, we should understand how crucial the things stated above are and furthermore we should try to make them a part of our every day life.

Technology Addiction To Teens: What Is Tech Addiction?

By Giorgos Panoutsopoulos, Spyros Papanikolaou & Dimitris Prapas

technology_addiction_very_real_400

Addiction to technology is also known as Internet Addiction Disorder, Compulsive Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and iDisorder. While it is not recognized as a disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, it is becoming increasingly common. Some studies suggest that as many as 38 percent of people in the United States and Europe may suffer from tech dependence.

 

How does technology affect our brains?

 

When it comes to shaping our brains our environment plays a big role.

In fact it’s the “thinking” in response to our environmental experiences and interaction with our world that actually shapes our brains. You may have even observed children trying to swipe or pinch-enlarge a picture in a magazine.

So in short, the answer to the question, does technology change our bodies and our brains, is yes, technology affects our memory, our attention, what we focus on and our sleep cycles.

 

Causes Of Technology Addiction In Teens

 

A technology addiction can occur for a variety of reasons:

  • A history of mental health disorders can cause any type of addiction including technology and teenagers Internet addiction.
  • Low self esteem is always a cause for addictions. People who are shy or have poor self esteem may find it easy to connect with others on the Internet where anonymity is possible.
  • Shyness and social anxiety: People who are very shy or have difficulty in communicating with other people can have a tendency on the internet as a way of escape. For these people, the internet is transformed into a safe harbour where they can spend time without face-to-face communication. Shy people can express themselves better in the online world, reveal their personalities and express themselves with an identity that is independent of reality.
  • Depression: In some cases, depression can lead people to internet and technology addiction. The fun time spent on the internet can make people forget their sorrow temporarily. People who spend more time on the internet and technology to avoid problems constantly turn into technology addicts.

 

 

Types of technology addiction:

  • Game addiction
  • Social media addiction
  • Shopping addiction
  • Addiction to auction and chance games

 

How Can You Prevent Technology Addiction?

  • Give yourself time limits
  • Turn off notifications
  •  Don’t allow streaks
  • Use other rewards

 

Notifications Keep Bringing You Back

When you are ready to free yourself of distractions and put your technology down, applications start sending you notifications. The siren call of a notification light blinking on your phone is extremely powerful.

While it may be nearly impossible to remove technology from our lives completely, there are ways we can limit its effect on our brains if we are aware of the reasons we keep coming back to it. Knowledge about the tactics used to keep us involved with each application will go a long way to helping live without the powerful addiction of technology.

 

 

Sources:

https://www.newportacademy.com/resources/mental-health/technology-dependence/

https://mdhs.unimelb.edu.au/news-and-events/news-archive/how-does-technology-affect-our-brains

https://www.momjunction.com/articles/teens-technology-and-internet-addiction_00382302/#teens-and-technology

https://www.mentalup.co/blog/causes-losses-and-prevention-of-technology-addiction

https://useboomerang.com/2018/01/02/prevent-technology-addiction/

 

 

 

 

 

The benefits of Computer Technology

By Dora Papanastasopoulou, Dionisia Hantzi & Konstantina Sabazioti

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Communication

Computer technology provides a number of benefits in terms of fast communication. Instant messaging systems allow users to exchange information in real time without necessitating a call or physically moving to another location.

Travel

Computer technology radically alters the process of travel. Savvy travelers no longer need a travel agent to get to their destination of choice. Online services provide travelers the chance to book tickets, compare prices and even to plan routes for travel by car, all of which reduce costs in time and money.

Education

The educational benefits of computer technology are manifold. Computers in classroom provide young children the opportunity to learn skills, such as touch-typing, and core types of programs, such as word processing and spreadsheet applications, they will need throughout their careers. The Internet allows users the world over to pursue informal and formal distance learning, ranging from simple how-to videos up to graduate level college degrees.

In conclusion:

Computers benefit the business and personal world by being able to do the following more efficiently: buying and selling products, communicating throughout the world, enhancing our knowledge, job influences, entertainment, research, and paying bills. In our days computers have become a part of our lives.

Sources

  • https://www.techwalla.com/articles/what-are-the-benefits-of-computer-technology
  • https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001798.htm
  • http://www.geocities.ws/introductiontocomputers/How%20Computers%20Have%20Impacted%20Our%20Lives.html

CLIMATE CHANGE

 

 By Marios Chourpiliadis

 

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE

      The main cause of climate change is global warming, which has many negative consequences on physical, biological and human systems, as well as other effects.

 

CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE

      Global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect, a natural process by which the atmosphere retains some of the Sun’s heat, allowing the Earth to maintain the necessary conditions to host life. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the planet would be -180C.

The problem is that daily human activities maximize the greenhouse effect, causing the planet’s temperature to increase even more.

 1

WHEN DID HUMANS FIRST BEGIN TO CAUSE CLIMATE CHANGE?

Experts agree that the Industrial Revolution was the turning point when emissions of greenhouse effect gases entering the atmosphere began to soar. The Industrial Revolution was itself borne out of smaller revolutions: agricultural, technological, demographic, transport, finance… creating a new model of production and consumption.

From then onward, population growth (in 1750, there were fewer than 800 million people on Earth, whereas now we are over 7.5 billion), exploding resource use, increasing energy demand and production, mainly from fossil fuels, all saw the planet enter into what the scientific community have termed the Anthropocene period, a new geological era characterized by human impact on Earth.

The main impact was the increase in the global temperature of the planet, which has risen 1.1°C since this period, although it is estimated that, by the end of the present Century, the thermometer could rise by 2.7 °even if national commitments to reduce emissions are fulfilled.

 

CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE

The global temperature increase brings disastrous consequences, endangering the survival of the Earth’s flora and fauna, including human beings. The worst climate change impacts include the melting of the ice mass at the poles, which in turn causes rising sea level, producing flooding and threatening coastal environments through which small island states risk disappearing entirely.

Climate change also increases the appearance of more violent weather phenomena, drought, fires, the death of animal and plant species, flooding from rivers and lakes, the creation of climate refugees and destruction of the food chain and economic resources, especially in developing countries.

 

THE MYSTERY OF CICADA 3301

By Ermis Efthymiou-Mouzouras & Kleopatra Giannika

header

Introduction

Cicada is the nickname of puzzle project by an organization called 3301, with the final goal, as thought by many, to recruit only the elite of problem solvers and language experts around the world. What started it all was a post on a forum style website called 4chan.

 

THE FIRST PUZZLE

On the 4th of January 2012, a user on 4chan posted this image (This screencap seems to be the only surviving archive of the original 4chan thread) to the site’s /b/ otherwise known as «random» chat board.

1  3301orig2012cesarincluded

 The anonymous author who went by the pseudonym 3301 called users to uncover a message hidden within the image. What a small number of people realized was that someone had just set in motion one of the Internet’s most elaborate scavenger hunts to have ever existed. And so, the mystery of Cicada 3301 started to unravel. Within minutes of the image being posted, someone discovered that by opening the image file using a text editor, revealed a secret message. This string of text contained a cipher that once deciphered, revealed a link to another image.

At first, the image was looked at as a dead-end, but using an application known as OutGuess (hence the reference in the image), users were able to discover hidden information within this seemingly dead end. The information contained a link to a subreddit which in turn contained information about a book. The book along with a code were then used to uncover a now deactivated phone number that when called, played a pre-recorded message.

The message was:

«Very good. You have done well. There are 3 prime numbers associated with the original jpeg image. 3301 is one of them. You will have to find the other two. Multiply all three of these numbers and add a .com to the end to find the next step. Good luck. Goodbye.»

2  Decoy

   By the following day, the initial image had been reposted all over the Internet. A growing community of Internet detectives sought on a mission to solve this very elaborate puzzle but no one was quite sure what to make of it.

Who was the creator of it?

What was the puzzle for?

What happens if one solves it?

 

Many dismissed the puzzle as a big troll while others perceived its complexity as a challenge.

Before long rumors started going around that this was just the work of a secret society or a government agency looking for skillful recruits in cryptography, steganography and another related field to join its ranks.

All of those, of course, were nothing but a rumour.

The two missing numbers mentioned in the pre-recorded message proved to be the dimensions of the original black and white image. After multiplying the width and height of the image 509 and 503 respectively with 3301 and adding to the result “.com” at the end like the message directed users were led to a website (Archive of original site).

The website mentioned had a countdown as well as an image of a cicada. Once the countdown reached zero, the page was updated with a list of coordinates all of which corresponded to a location somewhere around the globe. 14 locations in 5 countries to be exact.

It was now up to participants to venture outside and look for clues. Those who thought of Cicada as the work of an organization had just confirmed their suspicions. In their opinion, only an international organization possessed the resources for a scavenger hunt of such magnitude. This was by no means the work of the average Internet troll. This was something much bigger than the work of just one person.

At each location there was a poster with a cicada on it and a QR code that once scanned led to an image that contained a riddle which led to a book and the book to a website. Here is where the puzzle got even more interesting. Only a special group of the first arrivals to this website were allowed to participate in the final stage of the puzzle. The site was eventually taken down and the following message appeared in its place:

«We want the best, not the followers.»

The selected few were also warned not to collaborate with others on the puzzle nor to share the details of this private state of the puzzle. Obviously, since we have this information it’s safe to say that not all the participants adhered to the warning. But those who did presumably advanced to the final stages of the puzzle and reached its very end.

After nearly a month of silence, the following image appeared on the subreddit announcing the end of the hunt.

3  ChmYzh5syO1KSEU18p6hZIzxFfLh3vk7dcwMVwAC-rk

Whatever happened to the individuals that Cicada was looking to find through this puzzle is a mystery to this date. The lack of information after the end of the puzzle was conceived by many as an indication that the puzzle had been nothing but a wild goose chase intending to waste everyone’s time from the start.

The questing of the original image still remains unanswered.

Who was the creator of it?

What was the puzzle for?

What happens if one solves it?

It later turned out that this was just the beginning.

 

THE SECOND PUZZLE

The organisation behind the puzzle had the foresight to include an authentication code known as a PGP signature along with each clue. This allowed users to verify that an image or message was truly for Cicada and not an imposter looking to confuse the to-this-point-devoted followers of the game. All messages lacking a valid PGP signature were quickly disregarded as fakes.

Exactly a year and a day after the original image was posted, a second image (This Pastebin dump seems to be the only surviving archive of the original 4chan thread.) followed, whose PGP signature finally matched that of Cicada’s.

4  Cicada 3301 quebra-cabeça criptografia, matemática, literatura 4

   Naturally, this led to the Internet going on a frenzy and the search for what this new puzzle led to once solved had just begun.

Round two was on.

The second puzzle was very similar to the first. The new image contained a message which led to a book, which in turn produced a link (the link used here is a mirror since the original has been taken down). The link directed to an .iso file that when booted from (Video of boot sequence) uncovered, among other files, led to a recording titled «The Instar Emergence«.

While people searched through the audio track for clues, a forum user found a Twitter account that was created shortly after the first download of the audio track and fit the overall style of Cicada. The account led to an image. The image proved vital to the continuation of the puzzle but the runic alphabet included with it would remain a mystery for quite some time.

Like the first puzzle, a new list of coordinates was revealed of8 locations in 4 countries that made once again aspiring solvers take to the streets for a new clue.

Eventually, the trail went cold again. A small number of individuals had once again been selected to partake in the final private stage of the puzzle.

Unlike the first puzzle, the second did not conclude with an official message from Cicada. Cicada had vanished once again leaving everybody no closer to an explanation. The original questions that were raised by the first image still remained unanswered.

Who was the creator of it?

What was the puzzle for?

What happens if one solves it?

 

THE THIRD PUZZLE

At the beginning of 2014, it came time for round three. On the Cicada tTwitter account, an image was posted which led to a book, the book contained a link (This onion has since gone offline) and it was more of the same. Visiting the site, users found another image, this time a collage of four paintings by William Blake. What was even more strange this time was that the puzzle seemed to revolve around a strange book. The book is titled «Liber Primus» meaning «First book in Latin and was this time unlike all previous books written by Cicada. The runic alphabet that had been uncovered a year earlier in 2013 finally made sense as the book was mostly written in runes. The book appeared to be Cicada’s manifesto of sorts. The strange writing within the book has been compared to that of a cult. Nevertheless, the book is comprised by a multitude of clues and codes. For example, one of the pages advised participants to seek out a website in the deep web but the site remains undiscovered to this day. Another page led to a website containing another recording titled «Interconnectedness» A large portion of the book has yet to be translated. The runic text on some of the pages appears to have layers of encryption much of it yet to have been decrypted. Only 19 out of the 74 pages have been translated.

2015 went by without the launch of a new puzzle. This led to many believing that the Liber Primus had to be completed if Cicada was to return once again. This speculation was confirmed at the beginning of 2016 when Cicada encouraged the re-examination of the book with a new tweet.

More than 4 years have gone by since the book was first discovered and minimal progress has been made. The questions raised by the original image still go unanswered.

Who was the creator of it?

What was the puzzle for?

What happens if one solves it?

 

Sources

Uncovering Cicada Wiki Documentation of the puzzle by solvers

Iddqd Archive of miscellaneous puzzle assets.

Idkfa A toolset for working with the Liber Primus book.

OutGuess Steganography software used extensively by Cicada 3301. Official website is archived.

Telegraph uk article on Cicada

Rolling Stone article on Cicada

Cicada 3301 Wikipedia page

Liber Primus

Solved Pages

Unsolved Pages

Liber Primus Symbols A 4chan thread about the odd symbols featured on the pages of the book.

 

Hyperlinks used in the document:

https://imgur.com/ke78n

http://pastebin.com/aXYZzzcv

http://www.reddit.com/r/a2e7j6ic78h0j/

https://web.archive.org/web/20150624035446/http://net-netz-blog.de/845145127.htm

https://uncovering-cicada.fandom.com/wiki/Map_of_all_locations_of_3301s_posters

https://uncovering-cicada.fandom.com/wiki/File:Everyehere.jpg

https://www.gutenberg.org/files/31447/31447.txt

https://uncovering-cicada.fandom.com/wiki/The_Leaked_Email

https://www.reddit.com/r/a2e7j6ic78h0j/comments/pdtbj/val%C4%93te/

https://pastebin.com/DDegZqLv

https://www.sacred-texts.com/oto/engccxx.htm

https://mega.nz/#!N1oXRD5T!I22-ukwhArw1uBV5FCyegCc5Os996rtcKl5sqBKdbrw

https://twitter.com/1231507051321

https://images.app.goo.gl/PG1m41f9yS8xPVQz6

https://uncovering-cicada.fandom.com/wiki/Map_of_all_locations_of_3301s_posters

http://i.imgur.com/zN4h51m.jpg

https://math.dartmouth.edu/~doyle/docs/self/self.pdf

http://auqgnxjtvdbll3pv.onion

https://imgur.com/a/8xnWx#0

https://twitter.com/1231507051321/status/684596461628223488.

 

Hyperlinks used in the Sources section:

http://uncovering-cicada.wikia.com/wiki/Uncovering_Cicada_Wiki

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/internet/10468112/The-internet-mystery-that-has-the-world-baffled.html

https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-news/cicada-solving-the-webs-deepest-mystery-84394/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicada_3301

https://imgur.com/a/8xnWx#0

http://uncovering-cicada.wikia.com/wiki/Liber_Primus

http://uncovering-cicada.wikia.com/wiki/Liber_Primus_Unsolved_Pages

http://archive.4plebs.org/x/thread/14547165/

The First Image of a Black Hole

      By Philip Antonopoulos and Chris Galanis

 

One of the concepts that intrigued the scientific community since its theorisation was the black hole. Black Holes were first coined by an English cleric and amateur scientist named John Michell, who saw the possibility of the existence of a black hole through Newton’s laws of gravitation. Later, Louise Webster and Paul Murdin at the Royal Greenwich Observatory identified the first black hole, Cygnus X-1.

But what is a black hole? A black hole, to our latest knowledge, can either be formed by the gravitational collapse of a star or from high-energy collisions. Gravitational collapse is when a star’s fuel runs out and it cannot maintain its mass, causing it to collapse into itself to form a singularity, a point where density is infinite. By the same process, if two particles of Planck mass, the fundamental mass that cannot be divided anymore, collide with each other at extremely high speeds, they form black holes. Black Holes are regions of spacetime that have such gravity as  not to let anything get away – not even light itself.

Photo1

The project was the idea of a Ph.D. student, Prof Falcke, in 1993. No-one believed that the ideα was achievable. But he realized that the specific radio emissions of the black hole could be detected by telescopes on earth.

After 20 years, Prof. Falcke persuaded the European Research Council to fund the project. The total cost of the project was over 40 million pounds.

Photo2

 

One telescope was never enough to capture the image of the black hole. Therefore, eight telescopes, located over the earth, constructed a huge network. There were three in the USA, two in Europe, one near Hawaii, one in South America and one at the South Pole. All telescopes sent the information to the central processing centres, located in the USA and in Germany.

 

The team has already set their next goal, the supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy! This will be far more difficult, not because of the distance of it, but because of an unknown reason, the light ring around the black hole is getting slimmer and darker.

 

Sources:

BBC News https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47873592

Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole

Phys.org https://phys.org/news/2019-09-team-world-black-hole-image.html

 

Poisonous Snakes in Greece

By PELINA ANASTASOPOULOU & VIRGINIA KOSTI

 

Balkan whip snake

1   The Balkan whip snake is a medium sized snake, which is commonly met in the island of Crete. It can reach a length of 1m, but is usually much shorter. It is completely harmless for humans, as it’s non-venomous. When caught and feared, it may bite fiercely, but cannot cause any trouble. It usually lives in rocky areas near sea level, as it prefers warm places, but has also been observed at altitudes up to 1400m. Whip snakes are diurnal and usually like sunning during the day. It preys mainly on other reptiles, large insects, small mammals and, occasionally, young birds. It hunts mostly on the ground but climbs very skillfully on bushes and low trees. In fact its Greek name dendrogalia, meaning treecat, is taken after its cat-like climbing on trees. When hanging it stands still and it is very difficult for someone to distinguish the snake from the branches.

 

Leopard snake

2

The leopard snake is the most beautiful species of snake in Greece, with characteristic orange-red markings on its back. In Crete it is called ochentri, which means viper, which is incorrect as the snake is completely harmless. This false impression has been caused by a V sign on its head, which is similar to that of vipers. The Greek name is spitofido, i.e. house snake, originates from Cyclades Islands, where people deliberately brought leopard snakes in their cellars and storage areas, so as to control mouse populations. It reaches up to 1.2m in length and prefers places up to 1600m altitude. It feeds on rodents, lizards and sometimes young birds, ambushing among rocks and over bushes. They mate on late spring and females lay 2-8 eggs. If caught it is very likely to bite, but still it is harmless.

 

Cat Snake

3

The cat snakes in Kefalonia island (in Ionian Sea) are called holy snakes, as they are linked to a religious tradition dating back in ancient times. The wonder takes place every year at the church of Virgin Mary in Lagouvardo, known also as Virgin Mary of Snakes. According to the tradition, when the nuns were once threatened by the Turks, they prayed to Virgin Mary. Then, snakes appeared miraculously everywhere and surrounded the monastery, scaring Turks off. Since then, every year between 6-16 August, small snakes with a small cross on their head appear in the rocks of the belfry. The snakes are believed to bring good fortune and non-appearing is perceived as a bad omen. It is characteristic that the snakes did not appear in 1940 and 1953, the years of the Second World War (in Greece) and the catastrophic earthquake in Kefalonia, respectivelly.

 

Dice snake

4

The dice snake is a kind of water snake, which occurs frequently in the permanent wetlands, the sea shores and rock pools of Crete. Many Cretans call it as water snake, but this name actually belongs to the relative species of Natrix natrix, which is absent from the island. Finally there is the suspicion that the dice snake of Crete belongs to a separate species, but it hasn’t been confirmed yet. If picked up, this snake will rarely bite, but it can and does emit a strong-smelling fluid and make a whistling sound in an attempt to put its tormentor off. It also pretends being dead by turning upside down, with open mouth and its tongue out. It is non-venomous and usually reaches 80cm in length. It mates in the spring and females lay 5-25 eggs in the summer.

 

Source:  https://www.cretanbeaches.com/en/fauna-and-animal-species/reptiles/snakes

 

 

 

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