Στήλη: Science-Technology


by Nasia Kouli

Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera, which also includes moths.

Bay Area Sees Rebound In Monarch Butterfly Population


Butterflies in their adult stage can live from a week to nearly a year depending on the species. Many species have long larval life stages while others can remain dormant in their pupal or egg stages and thereby survive winters. They have a four-stage life cycle, as like most insects they undergo complete metamorphosis.

  1. Egg
  2. Caterpillar
  3. Pupa
  4. adult


Large Cabbage White butterfly eggs

       Butterfly eggs are protected by a hard-ridged outer layer of shell, called the chorion. This is lined with a thin coating of wax which prevents the egg from drying out before the larva has had time to fully develop. Each egg contains a number of tiny funnel-shaped openings at one end, called micropyles; the purpose of these holes is to allow sperm to enter and fertilize the egg. Butterfly eggs vary greatly in size and shape between species, but are usually upright and finely sculptured. Some species lay eggs singly, others in batches. Many females produce between one hundred and two hundred eggs.



Butterfly larvae, or caterpillars, consume plant leaves and spend practically all of their time searching for and eating food. Although most caterpillars are herbivorous, a few species are predators, such as “Spalgis epius”,which eats scale insects, or lycaenids. Caterpillars mature through a series of developmental stages known as instars. Near the end of each stage, the larva undergoes a process called apolysis, mediated by the release of a series of neurohormones.



When the pupa is fully grown, hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) are produced. At this point the larva stops feeding, and begins «wandering» in the quest for a suitable pupation site, often the underside of a leaf or other concealed location. There it spins a button of silk which it uses to fasten its body to the surface and moults for a final time. While some caterpillars spin a cocoon to protect the pupa, most species do not. The naked pupa, often known as a chrysalis, usually hangs head down from the cremaster, a spiny pad at the posterior end, but in some species a silken girdle may be spun to keep the pupa in a head-up position.


PETloud 5

The reproductive stage of the insect is the winged adult or imago. The surface of both butterflies and moths is covered by scales, each of which is an outgrowth from a single epidermal cell. The head is small and dominated by the two large compound eyes. These are capable of distinguishing flower shapes or motion but cannot view distant objects clearly. Colour perception is good, especially in some species in the blue/violet range. The antennae are composed of many segments and have clubbed tips (unlike moths that have tapering or feathery antennae).

The number of generations per year varies from temperate to tropical regions with tropical regions showing a trend towards multivoltinism.

Life(food,predators,species etc):

Butterflies are distributed worldwide except Antarctica, totalling some 18,500 species. The monarch butterfly is native to the Americas, but in the nineteenth century or before, spread across the world, and is now found in Australia, New Zealand, other parts of Oceania, and the Iberian Peninsula.

They are often polymorphic, and many species make use of camouflage, mimicry, and aposematism to evade their predators. Some, like the monarch and the painted lady, migrate over long distances. Many butterflies are attacked by parasites or parasitoids, including wasps, protozoans, flies, and other invertebrates, or are preyed upon by other organisms. Some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic crops or trees, other species are agents of pollination of some plants. Larvae of a few butterflies (e.g. harvesters) eat harmful insects, and a few are predators of ants, while others live as mutualists in association with ants. Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the visual and literary arts. The Smithsonian Institution says «butterflies are certainly one of the most appealing creatures in nature». As in all insects, the body is divided into three sections: the head, thorax, and abdomen. The thorax is composed of three segments, each with a pair of legs. In most families of butterfly the antennae are clubbed, unlike those of moths which may be threadlike or feathery. The long proboscis can be coiled when not in use for sipping nectar from flowers.

Nearly all butterflies are diurnal, have relatively bright colors, and hold their wings vertically above their bodies when at rest, unlike the majority of moths which fly by night, are often well camouflaged, and either hold their wings flat (which means touching the surface on which the moth is standing) or fold them closely over their bodies. Some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules.


Different Native American tribes interpret butterflies in their own way, but generally, they’re thought to represent change and transformation, comfort, hope, and positivity. While some believed ancestors communicated through butterflies, others took the presence of these creatures as a joyous or hopeful sign.

The butterfly has also long been a significant symbol for suicide prevention.

(the symbolism of butterflies is the main reason why I chose to introduce this topic. I believe that positivity and hope is an essential element that the world needs in order to survive. Even in the worst conditions, even when someone is suffering, even if they are in the verge of giving everything up, hope is the only thing that can make them keep up in life)

 petalouda 6


Vertical Farming

By Alexander Theofanis


To begin with, the world population is growing at an unprecedented rate, so the hunger rises. The effects of global warming are as dire as some people fear and the farmlands are getting damaged or even destroyed. Because of these problems, we have to take actions and modernize farming to provide a better world to the next generations.

Firstly, a modern solution is “vertical farming,” a new technique that can provide food to lands that suffer froμ hunger. Those farms are huge and high and have enough space to grow crops that can feed an entire town. This type of farming has to be constructed in the developing countries to help them modernize. However, there are also disadvantages such as that those buildings are prohibitively expensive.

Secondly, the public may be opposed to vertical farms because the conditions that we are in the building will be controlled by the people.

Given those disadvantages, it is unlikely that vertical farming will be adopted on a large scale but it is a modern solution to a modern problem and people should give it a chance.


Source: Wikepeidia


By Panagiotis Kloukiniotis


     In this article I am going to talk about mobile phones” negative and positive aspects.

First of all, mobile phones are good for us because we can learn new things and infomation. Also, we can communicate with our friends and family. Furthermore, we can have fun playing video games with our friends.

On the other hand, it can be very dangerous because our personal files and photos can be stolen. Also, we can be addicted and isolated all day in our room.

In conclusion, mobile phones are very useful in our life but we shouldn’t be addicted to them.


The James Webb Space Telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope:

The most powerful space telescope ever made

By Spiros Voros

            Have you ever considered what happened 13.7 billion years ago, just 100 million years after the Big Bang? What happened right after the creation of the universe? (Because 100 million years are a tiny fraction of its age). Have you ever thought about the existence of life elsewhere? These are the questions that the James Webb Space Telescope will try to answer.

Being the largest space telescope ever constructed by humanity, the JWST will be able to see back in time. Yes, back in time. According to scientists, space is expanding with a speed greater than the speed of light.

It is also expanding towards all directions. As space expansion is faster than light and distances in space are gigantic, what we see now on Earth while looking at the sky is an image of the past. We just see light that was emitted far away in the past and since then has been travelling to our present via space. Neither time nor space are absolute. Consequently, by looking deep in space, we can see images of the past, images right after the creation. Looking far means shedding light on the past. The power of the JWST will allow us to see the first galaxies and explain many mysteries about them, such as why and how they have supermassive black holes in their centres.

This masterpiece of technology will also be able to analyse the atmospheres of the planets and the stars which it will observe. It is capable of telling us the specific elements that a planet consists of and the exact quantities of each one of them. These data will be then handed to astrobiologists to analyse them in order to determine the possibilities of alien life existence or even confirm it. There are more than 200 research projects already approved on that topic by NASA, ESA and CSA. Humanity is waiting for answers and hopefully the JWST will give them!

As we have already established the purpose of the JWST, it is time to examine its structure. It primarily consists of the main mirror composed of 18 hexagonal segments of gold coated beryllium and it has a diameter of 6.5 meters. The main mirror will reflect and concentrate the light on a smaller one, placed opposite it. Then it will be reflected and concentrated even more on the sensitive optics at the centre of the main mirror. This setup composes the sensor part of the telescope. The second part of the JWST is made to provide stability through space and to protect the super-sensitive and advanced sensor from the heat of the sun. In order for it to work properly, it needs to be cooled down to -223 degrees Celsius, a temperature that can only be achieved if the heat of the sun is dissipated away from it. There are 5, ultra-thin but very durable at the same time, sheets that are capable of doing that. Their size reaches the size of a whole tennis court! They are placed behind the sensor creating a hot and a cold side. The hot side is the one that will face the sun while the cold side is the one that has the JWST sensor. It is the biggest and most powerful space telescope that humans have sent to space. It is so big that it has been launched with an ARIANE 5 space missile folded and it is now undergoing an unfolding process!

But where exactly will it go? Its final place  is called Lagrange Point 2(L2). It is 1.5 million kilometers away from the Earth and it is so special because at that exact point all forces (mainly gravitational) cancel each other creating a zero-force equilibrium that will allow the JWST to orbit around the sun while being parallel to the Earth. At this point, it will also be able to be static, in terms of rotation, which will result in having the heat protectors always facing to the sun.

Its mission there is going to last about 10 years according to NASA.

Its development started back in 1996 with a planned launch for 2007. In 2005 there was a major redesign that delayed the plan. A number of several delays, including the COVID-19 pandemic, forced the space agencies to finally launch the telescope on 25th December 2021.  Its cost reached the stunning sum of 9.7 billion USD! Its name was chosen in honour of James Edwin Webb, administrator of NASA between 1961 to 1968 who directed many important space missions such as the Apollo Missions.

The James Webb Space Telescope will hopefully provide us with many answers about the universe. In about 30 days from now, the 30th December 2021, we will have the first photo of the telescope. From that historical moment on, researchers will start studying the early universe and will be led to huge discoveries. The upcoming years will be dedicated to science! As time passes, we are going to learn more…


The James Webb Space Telescope



    The official mission Post


  The main mirror


                                Lagrange Point 2 (L2)


James Edwin Webb


The Environmental Crisis

By Dimitra Plota


It cannot be denied that traffic and pollution of the environment have nowadays become huge problems. People are often arguing whether it has to be a rise in fuel costs or not. Personally, I believe that a higher price on fuels is not needed, but other solutions may be infected to tackle these issues.


To begin with, in recent days, technology has a dramatic development and make people lives easier than in previous years and offers different solutions that can be used. Firstly, if more sustainable energy like solar power, wind power, and hydropower are used to run vehicles and factories, less emission of dangerous gases would be detected to the environment. Furthermore, many traditional big vehicle corporations like Peugeot, Audi, etc., as well as the newest ones like Tesla have made significant innovative steps in the development of various versions of electric cars to follow the guidelines from the experts. Recent surveys have shown that the usage of these cars has declined the levels of harmful gases coming from vehicles in a city and protect the environment.


On the other hand, there are those who claim that the most effective measure for this solution is increasing the price of fuels. That is because, they believe that these immoderately uses of private cars is one of the main causes of the increase of the vehicles population and pollution, and if prices will rise, fewer vehicles will be driven on the roads.


However, both views seem correct, governments must help sustainable companies with decreasing taxes and emerging people to buy these eco-friendly vehicles. In the same way, they can buy trams and trains having the same technology for the decongestion of cities and encourage the citizens to use them instead of their cars. Opponents of not increasing the prices should also require from their governments an improved public transport system which needs to be affordable to the average person. That is because, with the rise of the prices, fewer vehicles will move, but people will have to go to their works.


In conclusion, even though an increase in fuels price is a good way to reduce traffic and pollution problems, it is clear to me that other more effective measures might be better to be taken. Governments have to work in a way that the whole society will gain the benefits from solving these issues. Educating and encouraging their citizens in the usage of eco-friendly vehicles is going to be a very helpful measure.

8 Benefits Of Having A Cat

By Nicol Barakou


1. Health

According to a research conducted in 2008 by the University of Minnesota, cat owners present decreased risk of passing away due to a heart attack. More specifically, all of the 4,500 people who took part (the 3/5 of whom did own a cat), had been under observation for 10 years and, in the end, the conclusion that the possibility of a heart attack was higher by 30% for those who had never lived with a cat was reached.

Another research by James Serpell, that took place in the University of Pennsylvania, followed 24 individuals who had just got a cat. They were asked to answer a questionnaire a few days before taking the cat, and after that, they had to re-answered similar questionnaires many times over the 10 following months. From the answers given, it was observed that within a month from starting to live with the cat, the new owners had realized that they experienced issues, such as headaches, backpains, as well as colds, less often than they normally used to.

2. Anxiety & depression

Scientifically proven is the fact that the cat’s purr has a positive impact on man, since it has the ability to make him feel relaxed, less stressed, and, in some cases, even to decrease his blood pressure. In addition to that, the vibrations caused during the purr can help with dealing with loads of conditions. Although all the animals have an “anti-depressing function”, the cats present an increased ability to infect the calmness which characterizes them and, at the same time, to detract the attention of those who suffer from some kind of phycological disorder, which has as a result, in the long run, their contribution in the fighting of the disease. Doubtless, cats can occasionally become truly amusing. Even if someone doesn’t have a cat of his own, there is always the possibility of watching one of the many funny cat videos that are available online, in order to spend his time in an enjoyable way. At this point, it is well-worth mentioning that, according to specialists, watching such videos for about 20 minutes on a daily basis, promises to reduce the cortisol’s levels in the organism and boost the short-term memory.

Additionally, cats play an important role in the handle of any loss, whether it is a loss of a beloved person, a job, a partner or anything else. The cat can accelerate the procedure of acceptance of the new situation and cause the reduction of usual symptoms, such as crying, since, talking to the cat about what you are going through, as well as the bare presence of it, can provide the individuals, who are getting through a harsh time, with great relief.

On no account should we overlook the cat’s contribution in the sleep’s process. As it above-mentioned, cats have the ability to  make the man feel relaxed, and, in this manner, to help him sleep easier. Beneficial would also be for the owners to follow their cat’s lead, and adopt the habit of getting a brief sleep during the noon, a “siesta”, as it is called, which is of great importance to the function of the body, the memory, while it is believed to improve one’s creativity, along with his productivity.

3.  Cats set a good example

Despite the fact that, generally speaking, calmness is one of the distinctive characteristics of a cat, at times, there are some outbursts. Under no circumstances will a cat hesitate to act in a crazy way and let off steam in the most unexpected manner. A research, conducted in 2012 by the University of Harvard indicated that if someone, even subconsciously, keeps his negative feelings inside, will increase the risk of developing a heart malfunction, or, in certain cases, even some types of cancer. Therefore, it can be concluded that getting rid of pressure and the feelings that are harmful to us, turns out being redeeming.

 Furthermore, we can imitate cats in their strategy of making decisions. They are in the habit of carefully weighting all of their options, before making up their minds towards a direction. So, they have a tendency to analytically examine their alternatives and, unlike dogs who are bound to rush in chasing a ball, they will find it preferable to devote a bit more of time in planning their attack, in order to ensure its success. Beyond any doubt, a mature decision, which will not be regretted afterwards, requires, at first place, organized thought and time.

Has there ever been a single cat who let a failure discourage or stop her? The answer is certainly no. No matter how many times they fall, they get back on their feet, showing us, via their behavior, that the mistakes are something inevitable to be made, but yet, should not be an obstacle to our way. 

4.  Cat owners are smarter

A resent study by the Bristol’s University in Great Britain has shown that the owners of a cat are more likely to possess a degree of higher education than those who own a dog. Another relevant 2016’s research based on 600 University students, found that those who had a cat as a pet are smarter and more witty than the others, while, at the same time, they tend to work harder and more extensively than the overall student.

5.  Children who live with a cat develop less allergies

A research conducted in the National Health Institute came to the conclusion that kids who are younger that one year in age and live in the same house with a cat, have considerably decreased likelihood of presenting an allergy at some point in their future lives. Generally, the younger the age in which someone gets “exposed” to a cat on a regular basis, the more armoured his immune system will become.

6.  Cats can tell a lot about their owner’s character

It has been proven that the pet’s choice is not random at all. While dog owners are, more often than not, more sociable and outgoing, those of a cat are more introvert, quiet, shy, but more honest, as well.

7.  Cats can save one’s life

In spite of the dominant stereotype which claims that cats are selfish animals who are exclusively interested in their personal good and only perform actions that can actually offer them a benefit, in fact, those smart creatures have saved human lives. To be more specific, there have been several cases recorded, in which cats had taken notice of upcoming epileptic or diabetic fits of their owners, or, in some other cases, they have waken their whole family up in the night, to warn them that, while they were sleeping, the house got on fire.

A striking example of a cat saving the lives of many men, is the case of Simon, a cat owned by one of the sailors of Great Britain’s navy ship, called “H.M.S. Amethyst”. Simon was boarded on the ship, when it was crossing the Chinese river Wang-Chu. The cat managed to prevent a mice epidemic, and, additionally, he contributed a great deal in cheering up the crew members, making them feel more optimistic and maintaining their morale high. Unfortunately, the beloved pet was hit on the leg and its back, by a projectile of the Chinese, who attacked the ship. When “H.M.S. Amethyst” finally got back to Britain, on November the 1st 1949, his wounds had been contaminated, and in the end, Simon didn’t make it. He was honored by the military, received a series of animals’ medals and afterwards, he was buried in the animals’ burial of Britain’s navy.

8.  Cats contribute in the creation of relationships

A cat can actually help its owner find a partner! The results of a research conducted in Great Britain showed that 82% of women who participated, agreed that they are more attracted by men who love animals, while, according to 90% of them, men who are cat owners seem to be prettier in comparison to others who aren’t.

● Sources ●


● https://petpet.news/read-this/19625


● eutuxismenoi_n_6886428.html

Οur Environment Is in Danger

By Marigianna Fotopoulou

Nowadays, it is well known that the environment is exposed to certain human actions that gradually lead to its destruction. However, many of us are not able to realize that, at the right moment, which exacerbates the already bad situation. All our bad habits can, in a short period of time, affect the world in which we live even if it was not our initial desire. However, we can now significantly improve this bad situation and ensure a good end. We are all able to incorporate into our everyday life some habits that will contribute to this and to leave behind some others that may not help so much.

The first thing we can do is to incorporate recycling into our daily lives. Recycling is a process through which the natural resources of our planet are saved. All we have to do is «separate» our garbage and then transfer glass, paper and plastic to the special blue bins that exist. In addition, we can move around the city by bicycle or even by means of public transportation, to reduce as much as possible the exhaust gas and the environmental pollution. We can even walk to our destination, at least if it is a short route. After all, this will not only be good for the environment but also for our general health, so it is good to take it into account.

 Moreover, the environment can benefit from the energy savings we make in our home but also in other indoor areas. So, by turning off the lights before leaving a room, as well as turning off all electrical appliances from the main electrical panel when we are away from home, we can protect the environment but also reduce our monthly expenses. Two in one! Finally, we can make the products we need ourselves. That is, ecological products, the ones we use to clean our home for example, which will not burden the environment more.

Αs we can perceive, it is easy to see the differences between our behavior and the behavior we should adopt, whether it is a big difference or not. Hereafter, we all need to do something to solve the problem of environmental pollution. Thanks to this environment we are alive, but we must do our best, so that this life is of high quality but also of long duration. We may not understand the change soon but in the long run, we will realize what we have achieved and we will feel proud, and healthier!




        The more you care,


 The more you live!!!


By Paris Drakoulelis


The subject of the text is the most well-known computer processors in the last decade around the world, the AMD. It is one of the top companies that produces technological products with such amazing quality in products regardless of price.

Founded: on May 1, 1969 by Jerry Sanders, an excellent mathematician, engineer and businessman born in Chicago, USA, where he founded his first company.









AMD FOUNDER Jerry Sanders on the fiftieth birthday of his company.



AMD’s first processor in collaboration with INTEL was the AMD x86, a product that competed with the Intel model of the INTEL 8086 CPU.

There was not much demand for AMD processors in those years. Intel, on the other hand, has made tremendous sales to many well-known companies.


 33      AMD’s first processor

44       Intel’s awesome sales processor


Things changed in the 21st century when AMD also started making series gaming graphics cards that were satisfactory to the average gamer and challenged Nvidia, which had dominated in previous years. So AMD started selling millions of pieces worldwide and somehow it evolved into what it is today.



Thus, in 2017, AMD’s ATHLON series were created, which were the most budget solutions for the world that did not have to pay 200-300 euros to buy an intel processor.

In May 2017, two months after the creation of ATHLON, AMD created the RYZEN series which had tremendous performance and for most people was their basic choice for their computer.

In the summer of 2019 he built the ZEN 2 series architecture of 7 nanometers where 3 months later they built the THREAD RIPPER series with the architecture of 8 nanometers. It was and is the most expensive processors with the latest one «reaching» the value of 4500 euros. AMD has exceeded 5 billion sales with their RYZEN line, something that has started to scare intel as their sales have fallen sharply. While with ZEN 2 architecture and THREADRIPPER it has reached 10 billion sales.




AMD Athlon processors





The latest model in the RYZEN series of processors


88    The most expensive AMD RYZEN THREADRIPPER processor with a value of 4500 euros and one of the largest in size.



The size of such an expensive processor!



In conclusion, AMD has grown incredibly in 50 years and although it has become more expensive in the last 2 years, it has also produced quality products with budget prices for people with little money and I believe that it will become the main choice of the world.


Source: Wikipedia


By Dimitris Droukas


The Ford Mustang is a series of American automobiles manufactured by Ford. In continuous production since 1964, the Mustang is currently the longest-produced Ford car nameplate. Currently in its sixth generation, it is the fifth-best selling Ford car nameplate. The namesake of the «pony car» automobile segment, the Mustang was developed as a highly styled line of sporty coupes and convertibles derived from existing model lines, initially distinguished by «long hood, short deck» proportions.


Originally predicted to sell 100,000 vehicles yearly, the 1965 Mustang became the most successful vehicle launch since the 1927 Model A.Introduced on April 17, 1964 (16 days after the Plymouth Barracuda), over 400,000 units in its first year; the one-millionth Mustang was sold within two years of its launch. In August 2018, Ford produced the 10-millionth Mustang; matching the first 1965 Mustang, the vehicle was a 2019 Wimbledon White convertible with a V8 engine.


The success of the Mustang launch would lead to multiple competitors from other American manufacturers, including the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird (1967), AMC Javelin (1968), and Dodge Challenger(1970). The Mustang would also have an effect on designs of coupés worldwide, leading to the marketing of the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri in the United States (the latter, by Lincoln-Mercury). The Mercury Cougar was launched in 1967 as a higher-trim version of the Mustang; during the 1970s, it was repackaged as a personal luxury car.


For 1965 to 2004, the Mustang shared chassis commonality with other Ford model lines, staying rear-wheel drive throughout its production. From 1965 to 1973, the Mustang was derived from the 1960 Ford Falcon compact. From 1974 to 1978, the Mustang (denoted Mustang II) was a longer-wheelbase version of the Ford Pinto. From 1979 to 2004, the Mustang shared its Fox platform chassis with 14 other Ford vehicles (becoming the final one to use the Fox architecture). Since 2005, Ford has produced two generations of the Mustang, each using a distinct platform unique to the model line.


Through its production, multiple nameplates have been associated with the Ford Mustang series, including GT, Mach 1, Boss 302/429, Cobra (separate from Shelby Cobra), and Bullitt, along with «5.0″ fender badging (denoting 4.9L OHV or 5.0L DOHC V8 engines).




Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark. The Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second «race» prototype. His lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.


An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the «Mustang» name for Ford’s new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar (early styling bucks can be seen wearing a Cougar grille emblem) or Torino (an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II. As the person responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added «Mustang» to the list to be tested by focus groups; «Mustang,» by a wide margin, came out on top under the heading: «Suitability as Name for the Special Car.» The name could not be used in Germany, however, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, also used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the «T-5″ until December 1978.




Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark. The Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second «race» prototype. His lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.


An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the «Mustang» name for Ford’s new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar (early styling bucks can be seen wearing a Cougar grille emblem) or Torino (an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II. As the person responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added «Mustang» to the list to be tested by focus groups; «Mustang,» by a wide margin, came out on top under the heading: «Suitability as Name for the Special Car.» The name could not be used in Germany, however, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, also used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the «T-5″ until December 1978.




Our Planet

By Vassiliki Apostolopoulou

Most of us are aware of the threat of climate change. The thing we can do to prevent or at least diminish this threat is to economize, not so much financially, but on the natural resources that we consume every day. In other words, we should all…

economize on water

The world’s fresh water is in short supply and millions of people have no access to it. To save on water, we should not leave the tap running and also taking a shower is preferable to having a bath.

economize on fuels

The consumption of fuels, especially oil and natural gas creates fumes and toxic gases. We ought to walk short distances and avoid going by car. In this way, less exhaust fumes will be released in the atmosphere. Moreover, to keep ourselves warm we should wear thick clothes and close all the windows at home, instead of turning on the heat.

economize on household waste

To ease the volume of urban trash, which are hazardous for every citizen, we should try recycling and using reusable products, so that our environmental footprint will be diminished.

economize on electricity

When it comes to keeping electricity consumption to a minimum, we can all try to turn off unnecessary lights when we exit a room and switch off devices and electrical equipment that we do not need.

All in all, we should understand how crucial the things stated above are and furthermore we should try to make them a part of our every day life.